Estonia (Estonian: Eesti), fully known as the Republic of Estonia (Eestiublika) is a northern European state on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. It is one of the so-called Baltic states (Baltics). It is bordered on the north and west by the Baltic Sea, on the east by Russia and on the south by Latvia. The state, which joined the Soviet Union in 1940, gained its independence in 1991.
The country is divided into 15 counties (maakonnad), which are essentially the same as those formed during the Soviet era.
Two of Estonia’s most important festivals are held only every few years. The Baltic Folk Festival lasts for a week, and the performances preserving the Baltic and other folk traditions make it unique. The Estonian Song Festival is very popular, almost everyone participates in it in some way.
Its surface was transformed into a wavy lowland by the recent ice age. Its average height is less than 100 m.
Its highest point is the 318 m high Suur Munamägi. The two largest islands are Hiiumaa and Saaremaa, a grass-covered limestone plateau covered in places.
Much of the country’s ice-dug shallow lakes have filled up and become swampy over time, and now half of the country is marshy.
Its largest river: Emajõgi is 101 km long, while its longest river is Võhandu 162 km, Pärnu 144 km and Kasari 112 km.
Largest lakes: Lake Csúd or Lake Peipus and Lake Võrts. Its coast is indented, the country has 1520 smaller islands. The two large islands blocking the entrance to the Gulf of Riga are Hiiumaa and Saaremaa.
It has a continental as well as an oceanic climate.
Due to the oceanic influence of the climate, the sky is cloudy on more than half of the days of the year, and the amount of precipitation in the southeast corner of the country can be 750 mm. Most of the rain falls in September and the least in the spring.
Due to the effects of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream, Estonia's climate is much milder than that of the same latitude:
in summer (June-September) 15-18 ° C,
and in winter -4 - -5 ° C is the typical daily mean temperature. Along the coastline, winter temperatures are always a few degrees higher and in summer lower than inland. The temperature can fluctuate by 20 ° C per day: in the morning the thermometer shows up to ‑12 ° C and in the afternoon it is already 10 ° C.
The longest day in Estonia is nearly 19 hours in summer, the so-called white nights period runs from early May to late July. The shortest winter day lasts 6 hours.
The plot is quite rugged, for three months the whole country is covered with snow.
Flora and fauna
Estonia's rich flora includes 1,470 species, while its fauna includes many European mammals, several rare and protected amphibians. The country has an outstanding number of forests compared to the European average, one of the special visitors of which is the Russian sagebrush.
There are 3864 protected natural objects in Estárszár. Lahemaa National Park is located in northeastern Estonia, 70 km from the capital Tallinn. The national park was founded in 1971 and was the first national park in the former Soviet Union. It covers an area of 725 km², of which 250.9 km² is a marine nature reserve. Due to its size, it is one of the largest national parks in Europe. The purpose of creating Lahemaa National Park is to preserve the landscape of Northern Estonia, protect nature, promote research, preserve biodiversity and preserve the national heritage for future generations. The national park is named after the northern coastline (Juminda Peninsula, Pärispea Peninsula, Käsmu Peninsula and Vergi Peninsula) with its richly covered coastline interspersed with bays, meaning "