Ancient Greek language


January 21, 2022

The different dialects of the ancient Greek language (ἡ Ἑλληνικὴ γλῶττα, Hé Hellenic glottta, New Greek reading Elinikí glóta) in ancient Greece i. e. 800 - i. e. They spoke between 300. From the unification of these, koine evolved at the beginning of our time, then, under the influence of internal development and other languages, the New Greek language, whose phonetics are very different from those of Ancient Greek and Koine. His closest known relative was the extinct Macedonian language.

Writing and pronunciation


In the case of the ancient Greek vowels (classical attic pronunciation in the above case) we distinguish between short and long vowels, of which ε, ο is always short and η, ω is always long. Of these, ο corresponds exactly to the Hungarian o o, ε (short Hungarian é) is closed, η (long Hungarian e), ω are open. The letters α, ι, υ can be both long and short; which of these durations is indicated by the breve-macron signs (˘, ¯). Depending on its duration, α is identical to Hungarian (long) á or its short version, ι with Hungarian i, í, and υ with Hungarian ü, ű. Ancient Greek vowels can also form a diphthong with two vowels, ι and υ, which are always considered to be long, except for the ending -αι, -οι. These are αι, οι, ει, υι, ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ, αυ, ου, ευ, ηυ diphthongs. If the first vowel is long and the other member of the diphthong is an iota, you will receive an underwritten iota in lower case writing, capitalized side by side in the same way as in the other cases. If these phonetic connections do not exist, in contrast to the New Greek pronunciation, two adjacent vowels are pronounced as separate syllables (e.g., the pronunciation of iota is i-ó, not good). There are also pseudo-dongongs in the ancient Greek language, ει and ου, which were initially pronounced diphthongs (/ eɪ / and / ου /), but in the classical age they became the same é and ó sounds as the Hungarian ones, which are long versions of the ε and ο sounds. nominated. The former later became a phoneme / i, iː / (see Latin transcripts, such as Kleitarkhosz> Clitarchus), while the latter became u, ú / u, uː / identical to the Hungarian one.



Translation: Oh Socrates, it seems as if you are rejuvenating in words (speaking youthfully, boldly), as befits a true orator. Plato, Gorgias, 482c


Originally, Greek writing did not use any diacritical marks. Only two of the long vowels are known, the omega and the eta, which have a separate punctuation (két is ligated from the composition of the two o), as well as the vowel – voiceless – hissing – popping sound pairs (p / b, t / z / sz, etc.) that occur in language. .) were also described in separate letters. Marking accents became important to the Greeks as their literature spread throughout the known world, as it made it easier to learn and apply the live pronunciation of writing. There are four types of these signs: the hehezet (Latin: spiritus), the accentus, the iota subscriptum, and the trema. The breve (˘) and macron (¯), which denote the scale, were used later in dictionaries when the letters α, ι, υ had to be denoted (the other vowels have only one scale, or are short or long).


Heeth is used as a diacritical mark for words that begin with a vowel. A syllable can occur in one word in two ways: either at the beginning of a word beginning with a vowel, or with syllable consonants (χ / kʰ /, θ / tʰ /, φ / pʰ /). Words starting with the vowel h +

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