American independence war
January 27, 2022
The American War of Independence was a war against Britain by thirteen North American colonies under British rule. The population of the colonies was divided by the conflict, and while the patriots supported the independence of the colonies, the loyalists remained loyal to the English king. Initially, the colonies did not want to become independent, but demanded the repeal of regulations and taxes that were unfavorable to them. There were several reasons for the outbreak of the war, the process which began at the time of the 1763 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War, entered its armed phase in 1775, and ended in 1783 with the Treaty of Peace, where Britain recognized the sovereignty of the United States. As soon as Britain won the Seven Years' War with France (1756-1763), it set about enforcing its earlier but unobserved laws and passing on some of the public debt it had accumulated during the war to the American colonies. By the 1770s, the differences between the motherland and the colonies had surfaced. After the Tea Party in Boston (1773), representatives of the colonies established the first continental congress in 1774. The British sent additional troops to America to curb those who were dissatisfied. The beginning of the war was marked by the clash of Lexington on 19 April 1775. In 1775, the colonies established the Second Continental Congress, formed the Continental Army, and on July 4, 1776, signed the Declaration of Independence of the United States. During the conflict, Britain’s competitors provided support to the colonies, initially in secret and then openly. France made an official alliance with the United States in 1778, after a major American victory in Saratoga (1777). Spain and the Netherlands also went to war against Britain. In the fighting, the English army took advantage of its naval superiority, so it was able to keep many coastal cities occupied, but their relatively small land forces were unable to take over larger areas. The American revolutionaries had roughly 20,000 regular forces behind them, which, however, could not be transformed into a full-fledged military force because its armaments had always been deficient and lacked in training. The regular British force (about 45,000) proved to be stronger in open battles, but it was not as effective in unfavorable terrain, where irregular American forces, many in number, outnumbered the regular ones. Due to the long distances, they also had to face supply problems. The British were supported by several smaller German states, to which the English royal family was linked. Hannover and Hessen sent the largest number of auxiliary troops to America, while the other German states sent smaller units. These are known in history as German mercenaries in the English army, but in fact these German states were quasi-warring parties against the Americans. The victory over the Chesapeake Bay with French aid created the opportunity for the colonial forces to reap a decisive victory at Yorktown, which led to the disarmament of the British army led by Lord Cornwallis in 1781. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris signed in 1783 (the “French Treaty”), the United States of America was born. Against its Spanish, French and Dutch opponents, England agreed in the so-called Versailles peace treaties.