Declaration of Independence of the United States of America


July 5, 2022

On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted the Lee Resolution declaring the independence of the thirteen colonies from the British Empire. The document officially announcing and justifying the decision, the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America, was approved on July 4. The original document is on display at the National Archives in Washington. July 4th, Independence Day, is the national holiday of the USA and a federal public holiday.

Historical background

The Continental Congresses

After the Boston Tea Party, the British Parliament passed five laws in retaliation, which the people living in the colony called the "coercive" or "intolerable laws". closing the port of Boston until the price of the destroyed tea is repaid Placement of Massachusetts under direct British rule the governor could transfer lawsuits against royal officials to another colony or to the mother country the governor himself can allocate quarters for the soldiers if the legislatures of the colonies do not do so Increasing the territory of the province of Quebec and giving benefits to the French Catholic population. At the First Continental Congress convened in September 1774, the representatives of the colonies decided to boycott British goods and petitioned the king to withdraw the laws - unsuccessfully. On April 10, 1775, the American Revolutionary War broke out. For some of the delegates to the Second Continental Congress that met in Philadelphia in May 1775, becoming independent seemed like a realistic goal, but no one urged it yet. Although many believed that the British Parliament had no legal authority over the American colonies, they hoped that III. King George takes their side as they continue to emphasize their loyalty to him and the British constitution. On July 5, 1775, the Congress drew up another petition, which (six weeks later, when it reached London) was not accepted by the monarch. On August 23, in response to the news of the Battle of Bunker Hill (June 17), György declared in a proclamation that the American colonies had begun "open rebellion", and on October 26, in his speech at the opening session of the parliament, he called the Americans hypocritical towards him loyalty, since their real goal, he believed, was the establishment of an independent empire. György declared that he intended to suppress the rebellion with a weapon, and for this he would even use the help of foreign troops. After the king's answer, the voices urging independence grew louder; among them, one of the most effective was that of Thomas Paine, who in his soon-to-be-popular writing entitled Common Sense (born January 10, 1776) argued in favor of full independence and the proclamation of a republic. The Congress that met on June 7, 1776 agreed that Paine with his quest for independence. Beginning on June 11, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger Sherman began writing the Declaration and compiled the first version, which was presented to Congress on July 1. John Hancock, president of Congress, and his secretary, Charles Thomson, signed the document on July 4. However, the declaration did not reach London until August 10, and it did not come into force until 1783, with the Peace of Paris.

Write the text

On June 11, 1776, Congress appointed a five-member committee to draft the declaration, including John Adams (Massachusetts), Benjamin Franklin (Pennsylvania), Thomas Jefferson (Virginia), Robert R. Livingston (New York), and Roger Sherman (Connecticut). they were. He did not take notes on the committee's activities, so we do not know exactly how they worked - Jefferson and Adams years