July 5, 2022

Mining is a set of activities dealing with the research, exploration, extraction, quality improvement (preparation, classification), transportation, and occasionally the production and trade of usable mineral raw materials from the mass of the Earth and its crust. In most cases, it is an irreversible and drastic intervention in the natural environment, aimed at the extraction of non-renewable mineral raw materials. The quantity and quality of the mineral raw material located underground can only be known in advance to a limited extent, which increases the economic risk of mining. Mining occupies a special place between primitive production and industry. It is considered the basis of industry, but it supplies not only industry with basic, raw and auxiliary materials.


The usable mineral raw material can be: solid (ore, coal, silicates), liquid (petroleum, water), gaseous (natural gas), geothermal energy. Solid materials are produced by open pit mining or deep cultivation, gaseous and liquid materials are produced by deep drilling.

A Brief Early History of Mining

The history of mining is as old as the history of mankind. When primitive man used the first mineral raw material and made tools from it (flint), he was already engaged in mining. In 1951, in the Carpathian basin, on the border of the village of Lovas, findings from the very early days of mining were unearthed, these are the oldest mining relics in Europe. Archaeologists discovered a mine of red paint, whose age is estimated at 80,000 years. Here, a tool made of bone and antlers of deer, used for mining, was unearthed, and they also found mining pits of red paint, the size of which reached 100-150 cubic meters, from which it was concluded that the ancient man continued to mine the paint earth not only for his own use, but also used the fire to loosen the rock. The obsidian mine discovered in the Sümeg area is estimated to be 6,000 years old, and the finds found in the Tata-Kálváriadomb and Miskolc-Avas areas are also considered to be of a similar age. BC Around 3500, underground mining was also carried out, a turquoise mine was found on the Sinai Peninsula with shafts and reservoirs from this period. Mining was also carried out in the ancient cultures of North and South America, precious and non-ferrous metals were found and collected in the form of precious metals (precious gold, precious silver and precious copper), processed into jewelry and objects of use. They were also able to satisfy their needs with the metals available in this way, they did not need to mine the types of ores that can be extracted by smelting. The huge blocks of stone needed to build the pyramids in Central America were also mined, as were the stones of the Egyptian pyramids. The archaeological research in both areas identified the mining sites based on the types of rock used. Traces of settlements for the accommodation of mining workers have also been discovered in Egypt. In Egypt, the work of miners was also used in the construction of huge underground church halls and burial places, and the science of underground measurements (mine measurement) was also practiced at a high level. The materials for the gigantic stone buildings erected in the era of the early Celtic cultures, the purpose of which is still not known with complete certainty, were also provided through mining. During the time of the Roman Empire, gold, silver and salt mines were operated in many areas of the extensive empire: in Cyprus, North Africa, the Middle East, Hispania and Pannonia along the Garam River and also in Transylvania. In Verespatak, you can still see the