Ballade

Article

October 25, 2021

The genre that bears the style of romance, ballad, is used in several meanings: on the one hand, a specific form of song and the musical genre formed from it, and on the other hand, a poetic genre of epic that also shows lyrical features in folk poetry and fiction. The features of the latter often appear in other genres of epic literature, including prose works. For example, in the case of short novels and short stories, we also talk about ballad (balladistic) style. The word “ballada” itself is international, its ultimate origin is the Provençal ballad “dance”, the noun of the balar “to dance”.

Poetry

Within lyric poetry, a ballad known as a form of song was born in the Middle Ages. It is characterized by the fact that after three verses the same verse (chorus) is repeated. It was sung, accompanied by dances.

People's Ballad

János Kriza published Wild Roses in 1863. since its folk poetry collection, the Szekler folk ballad has gained a special rank in the literary public consciousness; it is customary to honor the most worthy representative of the beauties and richness of all Hungarian ballad poetry. Over more than a hundred years, our knowledge of ballad has expanded greatly both geographically and historically, but after each new collection it has become more certain that most classical ballads have indeed been preserved for us by Szekler folklore, including the Csángó and Bukovina Szeklers. The extraordinary richness of Szekler and Csango ballad poetry is historically justified by the fact that it remained in the farthest (eastern) periphery of the Hungarian folklore area, where it may have had a lasting connection with the ballad poetry of other Southeast European peoples, especially Romanians. After the famous colleagues of Kriza (including Sándor Gálfi, Sándor Ürmösi) and his contemporaries (Pál Gyulai, Sámuel Szabó, Tamás Vass and others) until the turn of the century, the work of Szekler ballad collection was mainly related to Elek Benedek, Jób Sebesi, . It was compiled from the collections of the last century by Benedek Elek Székely folk ballads. selection (Budapest, 1921), which in 1958 received another edition in Romania. The first, purely text-collecting era of Szekler ballad poetry was replaced by a more modern method of collecting text and melody from the end of the 19th century, with such leading names as Béla Vikár, János Seprődi, Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály, Gábor Veress and László Lajtha. The worthy closing stone of this work is the Transylvanian Hungarians, marked by the double name Bartók-Kodály. Folk songs collection (according to Bartók's title: Székely folk songs, Budapest, 1923): 150 Transylvanian, with a few exceptions, all Szekler folk songs and ballads, with all melodies. Bartók's summary collection is of a general nature, but also contains many Transylvanian materials: The Hungarian Folk Song (Budapest, 1924). In the period between the two world wars, Péter Pál Domokos carried out significant collecting work among the Moldavian Csángós. Csango Hungarian folk poetry also had its own classic collector: János Petrás Ince. In 1841-43, he also wrote two booklets of folk songs and ballads of the Knesses before the Crisis, but they appeared only more than a hundred years late, under the care of Domokos (Péter Péter Domokos-Benjámin Rajeczky: Csángó Folk Music I. Budapest 1956). His own collections — lyrics and melodies — saw printing ink in several publications and editions in the 1930s; summary of all these 3rd edition of the Moldavian Hungarians (Cluj-Napoca, 1941). Later, the benefit of Csango collections was popularized in another volume: Rezeda (96 Csango-Hungarian folk songs, Budapest, 1953). At the same time, Péter Balla and Sándor Veress collected and published smaller Moldavian Csángó and Bukovina

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