December 7, 2021

Berlin is the capital of Germany, a provincial city (federal province) and the center of the metropolitan region of Berlin / Brandenburg. With a population of 3.6 million, it is the most populous and largest city in Germany and the largest and largest city in the European Union. The Berlin agglomeration, with a population of 7 million, is the second largest agglomeration in Germany after the Rhine-Ruhr. The population of the city is showing a dynamic growth trend. Throughout its history, Berlin has repeatedly been the capital of German states (Brandenburg, Prussia). From 1871 to 1918 it was the capital of the German Empire, from 1918 to 1933 the Republic of Weimar, from 1933 to 1945 the Third Reich, from 1945 to 1989 the GDR, and from 1990 the capital of the united Germany. Berlin is an important European center for politics, media, culture and science. The city is an important transport hub and one of the most visited cities in Europe. Internationally recognized universities, research institutes, operas, theaters and museums play a role in all this. Berlin attracts artists and cultural professionals from all over the world.


The city center is located on the banks of the river Spree, the so-called In the Warsaw-Berlin valley. The river flows east-west through the city, dividing it into two branches in the city center and forming an island (Museum Island). It is also crossed by the Landwehr, Lujza and Berlin-Spandau shipping canals, which are crossed by more than 50 bridges. The most beautiful of these bridges is the Schlossbrücke (48 m long), built between 1822 and 1824 according to Schinkel's plans; its edges are adorned with four groups of marble sculptures depicting military life. Even more significant bridges are: the Kurfürst Bridge, a large elector with an ore-cast equestrian statue; the bridge of Emperor William, the Belle-Alliance bridge adorned with four groups of marble statues, and the bridge of Hercules. In the western part of the city, in the part called Spandau, the Spree flows into the river Havel, which crosses the western part of the city in a north-south direction and finally flows into the Elbe in the province of Saxony-Anhalt. Along the rivers, there are large lakes in the Berlin area, fed by the Havel (eg Großer Wannsee, Tegeler See) and the Spree (Großer Müggelsee). In addition to the large lakes, there are a number of smaller lakes in Berlin, which are popular hiking destinations in the summer in addition to the larger lakes (e.g. Krumme Lanke, Schlachtensee). The highest points in the city are Großer Müggelberg (115.4 m) in Treptow-Köpenick, Teufelsberg (114.7 m) in Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf and the Ahrensfeld Mountains (112.1 m) in Marzahn-Hellersdorf. Teufelsberg is not a natural hill, but the II. formed by the aggregation of World War II debris. Such “rubble hills” (Trümmerberg in German) can be found in every German city that has suffered more serious war damage (there are several in Berlin).


Berlin has an average annual temperature of 8.9 ° C and an average rainfall of 581 mm, which is not much in Germany. The warmest months are July and August with 19.2 ° C and 18.9 ° C, respectively. The coldest month is January, with a value between −0.6 ° C and −0.3 ° C. The wettest month is, on average, July, with 70 mm of rainfall. The driest month is February, with an amount of 33 mm.


From the beginning to the Middle Ages

I. e. In the 3rd millennium, agriculture and animal husbandry were already in place of what is now Berlin. I. e. In the 6th century, the Germans arrived in the countryside. In the 4th and 5th centuries, the Germans migrated to the Upper Rhine, which was later named Swabia. The Slavs came here in the 6th century. The Slavic period ended in 1157 when it was founded

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