Biology

Article

August 14, 2022

Biology (from the Greek words bios - 'living' and logos - 'science') is a branch of natural science that deals with learning about the origin, descent relationships, body structure, functioning and relationship of living beings with the environment. The word biology was first used by the German philosopher Michael Christoph Hanov in 1766 in the title of one of his books. In today's sense, it was introduced independently by Karl Friedrich Burdach in 1800, Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus in 1802 and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck also in 1802. The title of Treviranus's book ("Biologie oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur für Naturforscher und Aerzte") indicates its meaning today. Modern biology consists of various specialized fields, the essence of which is summarized by the following five axioms: Cells are the basic units of life. The basic units of heredity are genes. New species and their inherited characteristics are the result of evolution. An organism regulates its internal environment in such a way as to maintain a stable and constant state. Living organisms consume and transform energy.

History

Overview

Biologists study the most diverse areas of life. It is customary to summarize the major disciplines of a comparative nature that examine the characteristics common to all living beings under the name of general biology (or biologia generalis, probiology) (e.g. evolutionary biology, genetics, ecology, ethology); and the biological disciplines that study specific types of organisms that are still alive today are called biontology or biologia universalis (for example, zoology, entomology, anthropology, botany, anatomy, virology, etc.). Biontology, which deals with living systems today, can study individual organisms (this is individual biology or idiobiology), but it can examine organizations above individuals that are organized from individuals (this is the subject of supra-individual or primordial biology). The world of living creatures that are no longer alive, but once lived, is researched by the sciences of paleontology (paleontology). Therefore, many people believe that "biology" is not a natural science, but a set of natural sciences dealing with living things. In another type of grouping, the individual disciplines are grouped according to how deeply we trace the biological laws back to the level of some elementary and even more elementary forms of matter: the atomic and molecular level is dealt with by molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, genomics, proteomics, but a molecular approach and examination at this level is possible for all biological sciences. the functioning of cells is studied by cell biology. the relationship system of the cooperation of several cells is researched by histology, organology and organization, while the functions are studied by physiology (physiology). genetics deals with heredity, heritable variability and thus the ultimate source of diversity in organisms; genomics analyzes the functions of the entire genome simultaneously. developmental biology studies the processes and mechanisms by which organisms arise, grow, develop until their death and age in the process. taxonomy deals with the diversity of species and their systematization, while evolutionary biology investigates the creation of diversity and its unfolding in earth history, and within this, phylogenetics and genealogy deals with the kinship descent of individual groups of organisms. the internal structure of each species is examined by anatomy, the behavior of animals by ethology, while that of humans is examined by psychology and human ethology. supra-individual biology deals with the effects between organisms and the interaction between organisms and their environment