Bionics in the textile industry

Article

August 13, 2022

The term bionics in the textile industry includes the transfer of solutions developed in living nature into the technical practice of the textile and clothing industry. Bionics is a new, interdisciplinary discipline that starts from the consideration that natural selection in nature means the optimal solutions to a particular problem. Bionics as a science appeared in the second half of the 20th century, but based on the solutions found in nature, processes and products were developed and products that were important for the textile and clothing industry and are still in use today. The fiber formation used in the production of artificial fiber materials was developed by Hilaire de Chardonnet in 1880 based on the fiber formation method of the silkworm. The silkworm emits the silk thread through two openings below its mouth opening, which solidifies in contact with air, so it actually consists of two fibers called fibroin glued together. The adhesive is sericin, which is dissolved during the production of silk yarn, leaving two independent threads. Chardonnet, the inventor of nitrate rayon, the first artificial fiber material suitable for textile processing, designed and patented the fiber forming head in 1885. Artificial fiber materials are still produced with a fiber forming head that works on this principle. The viscous liquid that makes up the material of the fiber is squeezed out through tiny holes, which is then solidified by a chemical (precipitation) or physical process (blowing cold or warm air) depending on the properties of the material.

Fiber formation of artificial fiber materials

The fiber formation used in the production of artificial fiber materials was developed by Hilaire de Chardonnet in 1880 based on the fiber formation method of the silkworm. The silkworm emits the silk thread through two openings under its mouth, which solidifies in contact with the air, so it is actually two glued together, so-called consists of fibroin fibers. The adhesive is the so-called sericin, this is dissolved during the production of silk yarn, leaving two independent threads. Chardonnet, the inventor of nitrate rayon, the first artificial fiber material suitable for textile processing, designed and patented the fiber forming head in 1885. Artificial fiber materials are still produced today with a fiber forming head that works on this principle. The viscous liquid that makes up the material of the fiber is squeezed out through tiny holes, and then - depending on the properties of the material - it is solidified by a chemical (precipitation) or physical (by blowing cold or warm air) process. In one of the methods of producing microfibers, we can recognize the example provided by nature: the structure of a cut orange. The formation of the two-component synthetic fiber shown in the figure on the right is based on this. After dissolving the frame structure marked in red (e.g. made of polyamide material) - the "original" part of which separates the strands in the orange - the remaining (black colored, e.g. polyester) fibers (the "meat" of the orange) become independent, reaching the order of magnitude of microfibers, i.e. their fineness 1 it is around dtex (a 10,000 meter long thread weighs 1 gram). Depending on their material, their cross-section may change compared to the regular circular sections shown in the drawing; if they are made of polyester, they remain circular, if they are made of polyamide, they take on a star shape.

Faux fur

The fur-covered skin of fur animals already appeared in the clothing of primitive man and is still in use today. They were so highly valued that some animals were destroyed on a huge scale to satisfy their needs,