Boeing 747–400

Article

May 19, 2022

The Boeing 747-400 wide-body aircraft is the largest-selling type in the Boeing 747 family. Although the design of the fuselage and the layout of the four engines have not changed, this type is the result of numerous developments aimed at creating a more efficient aircraft. Its most characteristic feature compared to the previous variants is the 180 cm long winglet attached to the wings. This addition was omitted only for the versions used in Japanese domestic traffic. Enhancements to the 747-400 include a two-seater cockpit with digitized LCD displays, fuel-efficient engines, fuel tanks built into the horizontal guide planes, and a redesigned, more aerodynamic cover at the wingtips. The design of the cabin has also changed somewhat, mainly due to the image of the equipment, and the completely redesigned passenger information and entertainment system makes the flight more comfortable. The dome-level layout does not differ significantly from that used in previous models. It has a maximum passenger capacity of 660 people (versions 747-400D) and can fly 14,200 km on a single charge. The type was first introduced by Northwest Airlines on 19 February 1989. The last Boeing 747-400 variant was delivered in December 2009, ceasing production of the model.

Development

Planned

Since its introduction in 1970, the Boeing 747-100 has gained unparalleled popularity in the aviation market. As it was the first wide-body aircraft in the history of aviation, it gained market-leading dominance over many years with its appearance. In 1980, Boeing announced the production of a new 747-300 with increased passenger capacity, with a dome-level passenger compartment as standard, while the previous version was an option. This was new in that the dome was nearly twice as long as the original 747-100 for more capacity, so they could accommodate many more seats. Overall, it offered no other innovations compared to the original base type, so the range was not changed either. At the same time, however, operating the family has proven increasingly costly, given fuel prices on an upward trend, with the Boeing 747 consuming four engines and 3 on-flight services in the cockpit (pilot, co-pilot and on-board engineer). the winds of change were felt when, in 1982, Boeing introduced a two-person crew on the Boeing 757 and 767 twin-engine models, as well as a cockpit with digitized LCD displays. This innovation has set a fundamental trend in the aerospace industry, as Airbus has already begun production of its new A340, similar to the McDonnell Douglas MD-11. At that time, the total sales of the 747–100, 747–200 and 747–300 (collectively known as the Boeing 747 Classic family) reached 700, but showed a declining trend. Contrary to the designers' idea, the introduction of the 747-300 not only improved sales figures, but rather new, more modern competition from other manufacturers, so Boeing's management decided to develop a new version. In 1984, Boeing's management lined up five aspects for designers: the use of new technology, a redesigned cabin, 1,900 km of added range, and economy