Bolivia

Article

August 14, 2022

Bolivia (full name: Plurinational State of Bolivia; Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Quechua Wuliwya Suyu, Aymara Wuliwya Llaqta) is a country in South America. It borders Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina to the south, and Chile and Peru to the west. It is a landlocked country, i.e. it has no coastline. It had a sea outlet to the Pacific Ocean between Chile and Peru until 1879, but then lost this territory to Chile. Bolivia "the country of flies": one of the highest cities in the world, the former capital: La Paz the highest navigable lake in the world: Lake Titicaca the most extensive salt desert on Earth: Salar de Uyuni In South America, this is where the proportion of indigenous Indians is the largest (the majority of the population is Indian) It is one of the poorest countries in South America.

Geography

Terrain

The western third of Bolivia is covered by the Andes, and the eastern two-thirds is covered by mountains, hills and plains. Starting from the northern border of Peru, the Andes form two main ranges that diverge strongly from each other, the Western Cordilleras and the Eastern Cordilleras. Between the two Cordilleras lies the Bolivian highlands, also known as the Altiplano. The peaks of the extinct volcanoes of the Western Cordilleras rise above 6000 m (Nevado Sajama is 6542 m high). The Eastern Cordillera consists mainly of sedimentary rocks. Rivers with plenty of water run in its valleys, to the Amazon in the north and to the Pilcomayo in the south. The Eastern Cordillera also has extremely high peaks: Nevado Sajama: 6542 m Ancohuma (Nevado Jankho Uma): 6427 m Illampú 6,421 m The Altiplano is roughly 1,000 km long and an average of 250 km wide, at a height of 3,600–4,000 m. During the last ice age, there was a lake system in the area, the remains of which are Lake Titicaca and Lake Poopó. This is the most densely populated area of ​​the country. To the east of the Andes there is a gradually sloping mountain and hill region (Yungas), which merges into the Amazon basin in the north and the Gran Chaco lowland in the south. To the east of the Yungas lies a low hilly and flat region called the Ilano.

Water drawing

The largest rivers in Bolivia are found in the Amazon rainforest, which are: Madre de Dios (the name means Mother of God) Benny Mamoré Río Grande (Great River) Guaporé In the Amazon basin, Madeira finally collects the water of these rivers. On the Altiplano is Lake Titicaca, which extends into Peru, and its excess water is drained by the navigable Desaguadero River for 370 km into the saltwater Lake Poopó, which is finally absorbed by the salt-marsh Salar de Uyuni. From the south of the country, the Paraguay, Pilcomayo, Parapetí and Tarija rivers flow into the Río de la Plata basin.

Climate

Climatic areas: equatorial, savanna and mountainous. The average annual temperature of the tropical plains, the Llanós (with the primeval forests of the Amazon in the north and the savannahs of the Chaco in the south) is 25 °C, the amount of annual precipitation is 1,400–2,000 mm in the north and 500–1,000 mm in the south. In the Andes, the individual climate areas were formed in accordance with the average annual temperature, which decreases with the increase in altitude. The tierra caliente (hot climate area) up to 1000 m is characterized by uniformly high temperatures and abundant rainfall. The tierra templada (temperate area) between 1000 and 2000-2200 m has an average annual temperature of 17-20 °C and less rainfall. The tierra fria (cool area) rising to 3000–3700 m is characterized by an average annual temperature of 10–14 °C, large daily temperature fluctuations and little precipitation. The average annual temperature of the tierra gelada (cold area) up to 4,800 m below 10 °C is accompanied by daily night frosts and little precipitation. (550–600 mm falls in the northern part of the Altiplano, 250 mm in the southern region.)