Bosnia and Herzegovina
November 27, 2021
Bosnia and Herzegovina (in Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Cyrillic Босна и Херцеговина, literally translated as Bosnia and Herzegovina) is located in southeastern Europe, in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. It is a former member republic of the Yugoslav USSR. It is bordered on the east by Serbia, on the south by Montenegro, on the 20 km coastline by the Adriatic Sea, and on the other sides by Croatia.
It became independent on April 5, 1992, but tensions within the country between the Serbian, Bosnian, and Croatian ethnic groups. The intervention of Yugoslavia in Milosevic on the side of Bosnian Serbs in 1992 led to the bloodiest war in the region of Yugoslav successor states.
The country's constitutional order today is defined by the Dayton Peace Treaty (1995), which ended the war. Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of two entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which accounts for 51% of the country's territory (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine / Федерација Босне и Херцеговине) from the unified Republic of Serbia (Република Српска / Republika Srpska). (The town of Brčko and its environs, divided between the two entities, are in fact under the direct federal administration as the Brčko District). The capital of both the state and entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Sarajevo, although in practice the government center of the Republic of Serbia is Banja Luka. Since the Dayton Peace, the country has been under international control, with power concentrated in the hands of the UN High Representative (High Representative).
Bosnia and Herzegovina covers an area of 51,129 square kilometers. It has an extremely long border with Croatia of 932 km in the north and southwest. It is adjacent to Serbia to the northeast and to Montenegro (Crna Gora) to the southeast. Bosnia and Herzegovina has largely natural borders formed by the Sava in the north, the Drina in the east and the Dinaric Mountains in the southwest.
The country consists of two historical-geographical units, the larger Bosnia (about 42,000 square kilometers) in the north and the southern Herzegovina. Both parts are mostly mountainous, but the surface characteristics are different.
To the north, the mountain range passes through the soft hills of the Sava (Posavina) and then into the Pannonian Plain. The parts of Bosnia belonging to the Dinaric Mountains stretch in an east-west direction. Herzegovina consists of Mountain (or High) and Adriatic (or Low) Herzegovina. The latter reaches the sea between Neum (better known in Hungary as Naum) and the Klek Peninsula. The so-called also poljék (small plains in valleys) that run north-south along major Bosnian rivers. In the south-west, south and south-east, the extensive karst fields (Livno, Duvno and Popovo polje) characterize the landscape.
Among the coastal countries of the world, the length of the water border is the shortest compared to the mainland. The country’s natural resources include coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, copper, and wood and significant hydropower. For Bosnia and Herzegovina, rare earthquakes and floods are the only serious natural hazards. The most serious natural problems include air pollution of industrial origin, general pollution of the area due to a lack of ecological awareness and culture, and increased deforestation.
Highest point: Maglić (2386 m)