November 28, 2021
Chon Duhvan (pronounced: 전두환, handja: 全 斗 煥, RR: Chun Doo-hwan; Nechshon (Naecheon), January 18, 1931 - Seoul, November 23, 2021) General of Korea, September 1, 1980 and February 1988 25th President of the Republic of Korea.
Chon was born into a farming family. He graduated from the Technical Vocational School in Daegu in 1951, then enrolled in the Korean Military Academy. He completed his studies in 1955 as an infantry officer. In 1958, he married the daughter of Brigadier General Lee Kyoo-dong, Lee Soon-ja.
In the army
Although he was not involved in any of the battles of the Korean War, he became commander of a Korean division in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. He rose quickly on the ranks. After Pak Chong Hi (Park Chung-hee) seized power in 1962, Chon (Chun) became the junta's interior minister and then, in 1963, chief of staff of the KCIA (Korea Central Intelligence Agency). He then held various positions and was promoted to general in 1978.
After the assassination of President Pak in 1979, Chun led an investigation into the circumstances of the murder. In December 1979, several suspects were arrested, including his rival, General Chung Sung-hwa, the army chief of staff. In essence, he carried out a military coup at the head of one of the factions in the army and removed many of Chong's believers from power.
Although the president was officially Choi Kyu-hah (최규하), the real power was exercised by Chun, and in April 1980 he became the head of the KCIA. The army also got rid of the last scenes of civilian rule in May and declared a state of emergency. When President Choi resigned on August 16, he was temporarily replaced by Pak Chung-hoon, and on September 1, Chun became president. The state of emergency was still in place when Chon (Chun) passed a new constitution in the late 1980s that allowed him to exercise power with a tough hand.
Difficulties in governance
Its presidency has been hampered by several crises:
In 1982, corruption, which also affected the government, forced him to replace half of his ministers
In 1983, he was forced to resign from several senior advisers and ministers due to an assassination attempt by North Korean agents.
Chun sought economic growth and political stability; South Korea's export-oriented economic development continued during its presidency and the country became rapidly industrialized.
End of political career
The 1980 constitution did not allow Chon to remain in office after the seven-year presidency. In 1987, he elected No Theut (Roh Tae-woo) (노태우) to run for president of his own Democratic Justice Party. In 1988, political unrest forced him to apologize for excesses in power during his presidency. He promised to donate his personal property to the state and retreated to a Buddhist monastery. that he created a secret fund during his tenure. In the same year, a Seoul court sentenced him to death, a charge he played in the 1979 military coup and in the crackdown on a demonstration in Gwangju. At the end of 1997, he was granted an amnesty.