Democracy (political system)

Article

May 21, 2022

Democracy is a political system based on the power of a significant number of voting members of a free society, in a common area where the checks and balances of power ensure the well-regulated functioning of society, such as the prevention of exclusive power by public authorities, social justice and welfare. society. There may be direct and representative democracies based on the way in which those entitled participate in public affairs decisions. Democracy is a political system based on the participation of the people in public affairs. A political system in which the sovereign “people,” that is, all full members of society — not an individual, a small group, or a particular group of power — govern public affairs, including government. Popular definition of democracy is popular rule, equality; the political system in which the people have power. The common feature of most well-known "democracies" is not the direct popular power, but the legitimacy of the choice of public power.

Origin of the word

The word democracy is derived from the ancient Greek word δημοκρατία (democracy), meaning the rule of the people. The root of the word is the word δημος (demos) people, κρατειν (kratein) means to rule, and ία (ia) is a constructor.

History

In ancient Greece

B.C. Around 700, in the ancient Greek polis, many of the social strata outside the aristocracy, through the colonies, became rich and then demanded a say in the control of the polis. As a result, they developed: a party (council), a council of archons (areiospagos, a council of police leaders), heliiaia (people's court), a council of strategists (military governors). BC In 621, Dragon Archon enshrined customary law and introduced new laws that abolished privileges. BC In 594, Solon was elected archon, who introduced the abolition of the institution of debt slavery, and instead of origin, wealth became the basis of political rights. First, the council of four hundred was elected on a ethnic basis, and later the polist was divided into four administrative units. He divided the public tasks among the public institutions. For a time after Solon, the development of the political system came to a halt in the direction of democracy and even reverted to authoritarianism. Kleistthen BC His reforms, proclaimed in 508, brought about a radical change in the political system. The supreme power fell into the hands of the ecclesia (People's Assembly) and they could decide directly on the most important issues. They included the issue of legislation, war and peace. It met 40 times a year. One of the aims of the reforms was to ensure the stability of the political system: The polist was divided into ten administrative units, which ensured the proportional distribution and representation of different social strata and areas. Officials were drawn in this way. The areas had independent military units, the leader of which was elected for one year. The members of the institution controlling the officials were elected by election. The members of the jury were also determined by lot. The institution of a referendum was also set up to prevent the re-emergence of dictatorship. Only ten percent of the population of Athens had political rights, but their political system triggered economic development that provided prosperity to the population. The i. e. In the second half of the 5th century, Athens was defeated in the war and democracy was abolished at that time.