Encyclopedia

Article

October 25, 2021

Csilla Fodor Fitness racer and fitness model Encyclopedias or lexicons are written collections of human knowledge that discuss concepts in some order. Both “lexicon” and “encyclopedia” are international words, both of which were introduced into the languages ​​of the world through Greek-Latin mediation. The two now cover the same concept, but based on their meaning and the history of the genre, we can make a subtle distinction: the lexicon is ultimately derived from the Greek lexis, meaning “collection of words, glossary, dictionary”, while the encyclopedia is παιδεία: means "general, all-encompassing" education "), merged from it into a single word. Encyclopedias thus aim to cover the whole of science (or a field of science) as a whole (often in a hierarchical order, discussing related topics side by side, see thesaurus), while lexicons often aim to discuss a smaller range and communicate concepts alphabetically, as their predecessors, the glossaries. Since the most recent encyclopedias have mostly given the terms alphabetically, the difference has almost completely faded, the two names are used as synonyms, they are sorted according to the etymology-supported difference However, the use of the two names is such that while some of the general, comprehensive works are called “lexicons” works are quite rarely called encyclopedias (the Hungarian ethnographic lexicon. Encyclopedias, on the other hand, have a special purpose or reading circle (pocket encyclopedia, children's encyclopedia), and sometimes in their name they pay special attention to the knowledge of certain nations / cultures (the Great Soviet Encyclopedia of the Soviet World, the Encyclopædia Britannica) .

Previous encyclopedic works

Early Encyclopedias

The Romans first named the encyclopedia a summary work by Marcus Terentius Varro, Disciplinaet (the title means about: things to learn) in 9 volumes (in 30 BC). Medieval thinkers believed that it was possible for the human mind to know the full material of the sciences, so they wrote their encyclopedias in the spirit of being a textbook, a guide, as a comprehensive work, intended to be read from beginning to end. The work of St. Isidore Etymologiae in Seville summarized his early science in 20 volumes in the 6th century. Izidor was one of the most educated church leaders of his time, believing and confessing that everyone should be given the opportunity to learn, that education is for everyone, he was a multilingual, learned scholar and educator. His spirit accompanies him in today’s modern age: he was chosen as the patron saint of the internet. The title of Vincent de Beauvais’s famous work, completed around 1250: The Larger Mirror. The seven liberal arts — grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy — provided the themes in such works. Francis Bacon (1620) wanted to summarize his early science under the title Instauratio Magna, but was never done with it. Bacon’s name is known in the context of empiricism, and from then on in science, observation, experience becomes the research method and it is a new scientific

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