Ernest Shackleton

Article

January 27, 2022

Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (Kilkea, Ireland, 15 February 1874 - Grytviken, South Georgia, 5 January 1922) is a British explorer and Antarctic researcher with English and Irish ancestry, one of the foremost figures in the golden age of Antarctic research. He participated in four Antarctic expeditions, three times as an expedition leader. He gained his first experience in the Arctic as a third officer on Robert Falcon’s Scott Discovery Expedition from 1901 to 1904, about which he had to travel home prematurely for health reasons. As early as 1907, he returned as leader of the Nimrod Expedition. In January 1909, the South Pole was approached the shortest distance ever, reaching a latitude of 88 ° 23 ′ south, just 180 km from its southernmost point. As part of the expedition, members of the team were the first to climb Mount Erebus and reach the calculated location of the South Pole. In recognition of these achievements, VII. He was knighted by King Edward of Britain. After reaching the South Pole first by Roald Amundsen on December 14, 1911, and then by Robert Falcon Scott on January 18, 1912, Shackleton set himself a new goal: not just to reach the corner, but to cross the entire continent by touching the corner. To this end he organized the Imperial Transantarctic Expedition, which set off on August 4, 1914. The expedition did not achieve its goal as their ship, the Endurance, was surrounded by the Weddell Sea and then crushed by the congested ice, so the crew had to leave the ship. They lived on drifting icebergs for months and then took lifeboats to Elephant Island, where Shackleton and five of his companions boarded boats again to help from the island of South Georgia, 1,500 miles away. In August 1916, all people were rescued from the island unharmed. Despite the hardships he experienced in the Arctic, he organized another expedition in 1921 with the aim of sailing around the Antarctic. During the Shackleton-Rowett expedition, Shackleton died of a heart attack on January 5, 1922, on the island of South Georgia, before embarking on an actual exploration trip. At the request of his wife, he was also buried here in the cemetery in Grytviken. Shackleton’s reputation is largely due to the incredible history of the Imperial Transantarctic Expedition, which made him celebrated as a hero in the contemporary press. Nevertheless, unlike Captain Scott, his name was forgotten for a long time. It was later rediscovered in the second half of the 20th century; The science of management theory and crisis management presents it to posterity as an example and model to follow.

Childhood and youth (1874–1890)

Shackleton was born on 15 February 1874 in Kilke, Ireland, the second child of a family of ten. His father, Henry Shackleton, was a landowner of Yorkshire descent whose ancestors emigrated to Ireland in the 18th century. Her mother, Henrietta Letitia Sophia Gavan, was of Irish descent. The motto of the Shackleton family is "Fortitudine Vincimus" ("By endurance we conquer"). Shackleton later named one of his expedition ships Endurance. The family coat of arms from the 1600s depicts three gold clasps in a red box. Ernest had eight girls and a brother. The family was highly religious, with a strict atmosphere at home. Shackleton and his brothers joined the anti-alcoholist league and sang songs about the dangers of alcohol in front of pubs. In the family, Shackleton was considered a progressive spirit, and his sisters were also encouraged to have a profession of their own, so in their adulthood they sought out Ken as a midwife, customs officer, artist, and writer.

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