European Committee


July 5, 2022

The European Commission (Hungarian abbreviation: EB, English: European Commission, French: Commission européenne, German: Europäische Kommission) is the decision-making, executive, decision-making, control and representative body of the European Union. Along with the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, it is one of the three main governmental institutions of the EU. Its main task is to initiate and implement legislation, as well as act as the guardian of the EU treaties, which are the legal basis of the EU. The activities of the European Commission have many parallels with the executive body of national governments, but it only has limited executive and decision-making tasks. According to the current system, the Commission has as many members as there are member states of the European Union, each member state sends one commissioner to the board. The work of the Commission is supported by an administrative team of 23,000 people. Each Commissioner has a separate area of ​​expertise in which they are responsible for EU policy. For this, you will receive a special portfolio with a cabinet of up to six people. Unlike the Council of the European Union, the members of the Commission are independent from the member states. They cannot take into account the instructions of the government of the country sending them, they must represent the interests of all EU citizens. The Commission is chaired by the President of the European Commission. On July 16, 2019, the European Parliament elected Ursula von der Leyen as the head of the European Commission for the next five years (383 votes in favor and 327 against her). He took office on December 1, 2019. Its central building is in Berlaymont ([bɛʁlɛmɔ̃]) in Brussels, next to the Schuman metro station and roundabout.



See also: History of the European Union The Commission is derived from the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, which was established in 1952 by the Treaty of Paris. The European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community were established in 1958 with the Treaties of Rome. In 1967, the European Commission was established in its current form by the merger of the executive bodies of the three organizations.


The Commission is different from the other institutions of the European Union system, except for a few exceptions, it has the exclusive role of initiator in legislation, i.e. only the Commission can draft legislative proposals and present them. The Council of the European Union and the European Parliament can officially ask the Commission to create legislation on a specific topic. In the field of foreign and security policy, it does not have the power of initiative as a body, only its vice-president, the Union's chief representative for foreign affairs and security policy. Where the treaties allow it, it can issue standards, so it also has derivative decision-making powers. In some cases, implementation is also the task of the Commission (this is a rarer case, primarily the task of the member states), especially if the implementation must take place according to a unified approach. As a result, it also has control functions, for example in the field of competition law. It also functions as a competition authority and can conduct competition proceedings against businesses and member states. The Commission drafts and presents the EU budget and is responsible for its implementation, for example overseeing EU programs and funds. In addition, the Commission is the "guardian of the treaties", checking whether the treaties and laws are properly implemented in the member states. In case of non-compliance with contracts and non-fulfillment of obligations, you can initiate proceedings. Furthermore, the Commission negotiates international trade agreements (within the World Trade Organization) and other EU-related