Enlightenment

Article

October 25, 2021

The Enlightenment marks the 18th century stream of ideas in Western philosophy, as well as the movement of his worldviews and the age in which it took place. Enlightenment thinkers focused on meaning, the essence of which is to critically question traditional institutions, customs, and morals. The goal of the movement’s leaders was to “lead the world on a path of development after a long period of irrationality, superstition, and tyranny”. This set in motion revolutionary processes in the view of the human intellect, nature, God, the economy, and society. the church. The movement prepared for several revolutions around the world that led to the birth and consolidation of liberalism, socialism, democracy, and capitalism.

History

Some historians say that the Enlightenment encompassed much of the 17th century, while others used the term Age of Intelligence in the preceding era. The two periods overlap and there is a mutual consensus that together they form a longer common era. In the 16th century and the first half of the 17th century, Europe was devastated by religious wars. After the political situation stabilized after the Peace of Westphalia and the English Civil War, there was a disturbance in the primary source of human revelation, a source of wisdom and knowledge, in views of the supernatural and faith, which created considerable uncertainty in the people. It was then that the Age of Reason came (who say it is two eras) when knowledge and stability were sought to be grounded with axiomatic philosophy and absolutism. Knowledge theory was based on serious skepticism and the need to know the nature of “knowledge” in the writings of Michel de Montaigne and René Descartes. The age, built on self-evident axioms, culminated in the Ethics of Benedictus de Spinoza. This interpreted the unified view of the universe as God and Nature, which became a central principle in the Enlightenment from Newton to Jefferson. The views of the Enlightenment were also influenced in many ways by the views of Pascal, Leibniz, Galileo, and other earlier philosophers. Waves of change have traversed European thought, exemplified by the philosophy of nature of Sir Isaac Newton, a mathematician and physicist. Newton’s ideas, which condensed axiomatic proof and physical observation into a coherent system of verifiable estimates, and his work entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Foundations of Natural Philosophy), set the tone for the period that followed. Newton, of course, was not alone in his systematic thinking, only he was featured the most and he was the most famous. The idea of ​​describing natural phenomena with uniform rules has also reflected the great systematic fever at the level of various studies. The Enlightenment defined itself as looking into the brains of God to know creation and deduce the truth about the world. This attitude surpassed even the thinkers of today, who generally think the truth is less definitive, but at the time it was a defining opinion. For those who separate the “age of reason” and “enlightenment,” Newton’s figure is a good example to illustrate the importance of difference because, like Kepler’s theories about the motion of planets and refraction of lenses, he observes empirical observations and t

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