July 5, 2022

Physics (from ancient Greek φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), from ancient Greek φύσις phúsis "nature") deals with matter and its movement, or natural science dealing with its behavior in space and time, as well as related concepts, such as energy and force. The main goal of one of the most basic scientific fields, physics, is to understand the behavior of the universe. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest, including astronomy. For the past two millennia, physics has been part of natural philosophy, along with chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics, but in the 17th century, during the Scientific Revolution, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics crosses many interdisciplinary fields of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics cannot be strictly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences, while opening up new lines of research in fields such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also contributes to the development of new technologies based on theoretical breakthroughs. For example, the formation and development of the theory of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that reshaped society, such as television, computers, household appliances, and nuclear weapons. The achievements of thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and the achievements of mechanics stimulated the development of arithmetic. The United Nations declared 2005 the World Year of Physics.

The subject of physics

Physics explains a wide range of natural phenomena, from elementary particles (such as quarks, leptons, and bosons) to the largest superclusters of galaxies. That is why physics is sometimes called the "basic science". Physics tries to include naturally occurring phenomena in the simplest possible model. With this, the goal of physics is to connect things that can be observed by humans to their original causes, and then to connect these causes. For example, the ancient Chinese observed that certain stones (magnetic iron ore and magnetite) were attracted to each other by an invisible force. This effect was later named magnetism, the first extensive physical description of which dates back to the 17th century. Even before the Chinese discovered magnetism, the ancient Greeks also made observations about clays (e.g. amber) that, when rubbed with fur, experienced a similar invisible attraction. This was also described by 17th century electricity. Physicists were therefore faced with the task of understanding two natural observations, which they linked to an original cause: electricity and magnetism. However, further findings accumulated by the 19th century showed that these two forces were only two different aspects of a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. This process of "joining" forces continues to this day. Today, we consider electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force as two aspects of the electroweak interaction. Physicists hope to find an ultimate cause (Theory of the Universe) that explains why the universe behaves as we perceive it in our everyday experience.


Ancient Astronomy

Astronomy is the oldest natural science. B.C. As far back as 3000, some early societies such as the Sumerians, the ancient Egyptians and the Indus Valley Civilization had a picture of the movement of the Sun, Moon and stars, which they also used for forecasting. The stars and planets were often objects of worship: so hi