January 21, 2022

France (French: La France), or officially the French Republic (French: République française), is an independent state in Western Europe with both European administrative and overseas territories. Its continental range extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered on the northeast by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany, on the east by Switzerland, Italy and Monaco, and on the south by Andorra and Spain, with a rail link to the United Kingdom via the Tunnel in the north. Its overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and many islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. The French administration is divided into a total of 18 regions and 101 counties. With an area of ​​643,801 square kilometers, it is the 42nd largest country in the world and the 3rd largest in Europe. According to its form of government, it is a Unitarian semi-presidential republic with Emmanuel Macron as its current president and head of state. The capital of the country is also the largest city in Paris. Other major towns include Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice. Its territory was already inhabited during the Iron Age, and both Gauls and Celts settled here. The Roman Empire I. e. In 51 he conquered and formed the province of Gaul here. The Germanic Franks finally conquered this region by 481 and founded the Frankish Empire. The Kingdom of France was established in 987 by the coronation of Capet Hugo as the successor to the Kingdom of West Frank, established by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. The medieval French state was a highly decentralized feudal monarchy. II. It was Ágost Philip the King of France who strengthened the prestige of the royal power and secured the territories previously acquired with his victory in the battle of Bouvines, thus doubling the size of the country. By the end of his reign, his state had become one of the most important countries in Europe. In the 14th century, during the reign of the Valois House, the Hundred Years' War against England broke out, which ended in French victory. In the Renaissance, French culture flourished, and then the French colonial empire was established, which lasted until the 20th century and was the second largest in history. The religious war that broke out between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) in the second half of the 16th century severely weakened the country. By the 17th century XIV. Louis' absolutist rule has once again made France a dominant cultural, political and military force in Europe. However, by the 18th century, the country was heavily indebted to the financing of an unjust tax system, costly wars such as the Seven Years' War, and the American War of Independence. The French Revolution of 1789 resulted in the fall of the monarchy and the ancien régime, proclaiming the First Republic and making a declaration of human and civil rights. France is the 5th most UNESCO World Heritage Site and a leading tourist destination, with more than 89 million foreign visitors in 2018. France is a post-industrial country with the 7th largest economy in the world in terms of nominal GDP and the 10th largest in terms of purchasing power parity. The country is also ranked high in terms of education, health, life expectancy and the human development index. As a global power, it is a permanent member of the UN Security Council and a country with nuclear weapons. It is a founding and leading state of the European Union, a member of the Schengen area and the euro area, and of the G7, NATO, OECD, WTO

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