Greek

Article

August 13, 2022

The Greek language can be traced back to ancient Greek and belongs to the Hellenic branch of the Indo-European language family. He has no direct relatives. In Greece, 10 million people speak Greek, which is half of the world's Greek population. 20 million people in the world speak Greek.

History

It is one of Europe's oldest languages ​​with written records, its development can be traced back 3,000 years. It was related to the Macedonian language, which is actually directly related to ancient Greek. Ancient Greek (800 BC – 300 AD) Archaic Greek (ca. 800 BC – 500 BC) Classical Greek (c. 500 BC – 300 BC) Hellenistic Greek (Koine) (ca. 300 BC – AD 300) within this, the language of the New Testament from the beginning of our time calculation Middle Greek (c. 300 – c. 1453) Modern Greek (since about 1453) Catharevus Dimotiki Modern Greek colloquial language Modern Greek existed in two versions, on the one hand the folk Greek (δημοτική dimotikí), and on the other hand the artificially created (καθαρέυουσα katharévusa, i.e. purified) official language, which was the official language as a renewal of classical Greek from the 19th century. Katharévusza steadily lost its importance, and finally in 1976 the Dimothikí version was made the official language of the country. However, the legacy of the Katharevusa is still present today. Greek has a few variants, such as those spoken in Crete, Rhodes and Cyprus. In addition, dialects spoken outside the territory of Greece are Griko and Pontos Greek in Italy. Cypriot Greek (Kypriaka) is the one that is more different from the language of Greece, it borrowed many elements from Turkish and from the other language variant also spoken in Cyprus, Turkish Cypriot. The current modern Greek language and the dialects listed above developed from the Attic dialect of the ancient Greek language. An exception is the Cacon language, which developed from the Doric dialect.

Letters

Modern Greek grammatical phenomena

Nouns

There are masculine, feminine and neuter nouns with different declensions. You know the subject, object, possessive and vocative cases. The sign of the plural varies by gender. Emphasis may vary in different cases. Example of conjugation of some nouns (ο άνθρωπως – o anthropos, the man; η γυναση – i γινεκα, the woman; το νερω – to neró, the water):

Verbs

Each number and person is different, so it usually does not make the pronoun (I write, not I write). It has past, present, future tense, narrative form (he said he was writing), active (I typed) and passive (I was typed). He does not know (has lost) the participle form of the noun. The stress changes during conjugation. Example of conjugation (μένω – I live, I live). It is interesting that in the past tense the emphasis is always placed on the third syllable from the back: if there is none, the word stem is supplemented with an extra syllable.

Adjectives

They take the inflection of the noun, so for example "beautiful flowers".

Sample text

All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are gifted with logic and compassion, and they are obliged to behave among themselves with the spirit of adelphosony. Transcription in Latin letters: Óloi oi ánthrōpoi gennioúntai eleútheroi kai ísoi stēn axioprépeia kai ta dikaiṓmata. Eínai proikisménoi me logikḗ kai syneídēsē, kai ofeíloun na symperiferontai metaxý tous me pneúma adelfosynēs. In the official transliteration following the New Greek pronunciation: Óli i ánthropi jeniúnte éléftheri ke íszi sztin axioprépia ke ta dikeomata. This is the logic of Prikismén