May 19, 2022
Győr (Latin: Arrabona, Jaurinum, German: Raab, Croatian: Jura, Đura) is a county town in Hungary, the center of the Western Transdanubia region, the seat of Győr-Moson-Sopron county and the district of Győr, and since 1009 the diocese of Győr. headquarters. It is a major economic, cultural, university and sports center, one of the most dynamically developing cities in the country. It is located on the innovative axis Vienna-Bratislava-Budapest and has excellent transport facilities. As the third richest city in Hungary in terms of monuments, it won the Europa Nostra Prize for the Protection of Monuments in 1989 in recognition of the reconstruction of the Baroque city center. Győr is also a “city of rivers”, as it was built in the eastern part of the Little Plain, next to the Mosoni-Danube, at the mouth of the Rába and Rábca. It was precisely this location along the river that greatly contributed to the formation and development of the settlement. In ancient times, the Roman settlement of Arrabona lay in what is now Győr. Hence the German name of the city “Raab”. After the Conquest, King Stephen I of Hungary established the diocese of Győr in 1001, which became its headquarters in 1009, when the cathedral was completed. Győr was one of the last bastions of Vienna during the Turkish wars, so it was of invaluable military importance. In light of this, the city was rebuilt and expanded into a fortress according to the plans of Italian builders Pietro Ferrabosco and Bernardo Gaballio. The conversion of the town into a fortress was completed in 1564 under the supervision of Hermes Schallautzer. During the protracted Turkish war, Győr fell victim to the Ottoman conquest in 1594 and was recaptured by Adolf von Schwarzenberg in 1598. After the Ottoman army was repulsed after the second siege of Vienna in 1683, Győr began to flourish. In 1712 III. King Charles of Hungary granted the city's market rights, and in 1743 Queen Maria Theresa confirmed the rank of the free royal city of Győr. In 1749, according to the plans of Johann Heinrich Mulartz, a city hospital was built in the suburbs, and in 1718 a Jesuit academy was established, offering philosophical and legal training, and from 1745 secular students were admitted. The Royal Academy of Győr was founded in 1776. Antal Deák and Ferenc Deák studied here, among others. In 1809, the only battle of the Napoleonic Wars in Hungary took place here, the Battle of Győr. As a result of the losing battle, the French besieged Győr. In 1855, the city first got a railway connection with Vienna, then in 1876 a new railway connection was established between Győr and Sopron, which was extended in 1879 on the second section to Ebenfurth. In the 19th century, the textile and machinery industry developed the most in the area, this industry is still significant today. Reconstruction after World War II was difficult near the border of the Iron Curtain. Today, Győr has a population of about 130,000 and three universities. Since the opening of the borders, the city has appreciated both politically and economically due to the location of the advantageous Vienna-Budapest-Bratislava city triangle. It has been part of the European region of Centrope since 2003.