Habsburg family

Article

May 21, 2022

The Habsburg family (Habsburg House until 1740 and on the Hungarian throne until 1780; Habsburg-Lorraine House from 1745 and 1780) was one of the most important ruling families in Europe, consisting of German kings, German-Roman emperors, Czech , Hungary, Spain and Portugal. In addition, members of the family at various times were assigned to numerous Italian and German principalities, electoral districts, and so on. they were lords.

Origin of the family

The family dates back to the 10th century. The first known ancestor was Rich Guntram, although he did not yet bear the name Habsburg (he died in 973). The name Habsburg stuck to the Alemann family in the 11th century, when II. Otto (died 1111) became Count of Habichtsburg in what is now Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, at the confluence of the rivers Aare and Reuss. According to another source, Habichtsburg was built by Guntram's grandson, Werner, who had been bishop of Strasbourg since 1002. The name of the castle in Hungarian means Héjavár, and hence the well-known Habsburg family coat of arms. Their estates were initially located mainly in the Swabian Principality, which was later supplemented by Alsatian territories (according to some sources, by contrast, Alsatian estates were the initial tribal area). Later, they were expelled from the Swiss territory by the Swiss, and at the same time, taking advantage of the differences between the Hungarians and the Czechs, they acquired their first estates in Eastern Austria.

German kings and German-Roman emperors

The first ruler of the family was Rudolf I (1218–1291), who was elected king of Germany in 1273. In 1282, at the imperial assembly in Augsburg, he donated to his sons the imperial territories acquired from the Czech king Ottokár, Upper and Inner Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carinthia, thus forming the family's later Central European base. In 1315, as a result of the Swiss War of Independence, they lost much of their territory there. After that, the lords of the imperial territories, which were changing but growing all the time. The German royal title was lost after the death of Rudolf I, son of Albert I (1308) (there was no continuity between them: Adolf Nassau ruled from 1292 to 1298), and only II. Albert regained it in 1438. Imperial title first III. It was worn by Frederick (1415–1493) (he was crowned King of Germany in 1442 and Emperor of Germany and Rome in 1452). From then on, the German-Roman emperors kept coming out of the Habsburg house until 1742, when VII. (Wittelsbach) Charles was elected emperor. In 1745, Maria Theresa's husband, Francis I (Lorraine), was elected, and they founded the Habsburg-Lorraine house. In 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was declared extinct, and II. Two years earlier, in 1804, the German-Roman emperor Francis took the title of Emperor of Austria in the name of Francis I. As King Charles of Hungary).

The Spanish Habsburgs

In 1496 the son of King Miksa I of Germany (German-Roman emperor from 1508), IV. (Beautiful) Philip, who was then the full ruler of the Netherlands as the heir of his mother, Mary of Burgundy, Johanna, Queen I (Catholic) of Castile, and Queen II. (Catholic) King Ferdinand of Aragon married his secondborn daughter, while Philip's sister, Margaret, married John in 1497 to the heir to the throne of Castile and Aragon. John, on the other hand, died as early as 1497, and as a result of the tragedies in the Castilian royal family, in 1500 his wife, Johanna, became heir to the throne. Johanna was officially appointed heir to the throne of Castile and Aragon in 1502 when she and her husband