Croatia

Article

August 14, 2022

Croatia (officially the Republic of Croatia, Croatian: Republika Hrvatska) is a southeastern European country on the Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the north, Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina to the east, and Montenegro in a short stretch to the southeast. In the southwest, the Adriatic Sea forms its natural border. The territory of the country is not continuous, there are two Croatian enclaves in Slovenian territory near Brezovica Žumberačka. After the Second World War, it was part of Yugoslavia, and after the dissolution of the state structure, it declared its independence in 1991. Croatia is a member of the following international organizations: UN, Council of Europe, NATO, World Trade Organization, CEFTA, and since July 1, 2013, a member of the European Union.

Geography

The country is located in the northwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the north, Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina to the east, and Montenegro in a short stretch to the southeast. In the southwest, the Adriatic Sea forms its natural border. The long beach is a specialty of the country. It is in dispute with Slovenia regarding its maritime borders. From a geopolitical point of view, it can be divided into two main parts: Inner Croatia (Panonska Hrvatska) Adriatic Croatia (Jadranska Hrvatska)

Climate

The climate of the country is characterized by moderate continental, dry and hot summers and cold, rainy winters in the interior regions. The mountains have a typically mountainous climate with cool summers and cold, snow-rich winters. The climate on the coasts is Mediterranean: hot and dry summers, mild and rainy winters on the coast.

Terrain

The shape of the country, characterized by capricious borders, resembles an oblique letter "n" on the map. Despite the country's small area, the landscape is diverse. Its most prominent landscape units are: The part of the Dráva-Sáva Region (Nizinska Hrvatska) north of the Sava is also called Slavonia, or between the Dráva and Sava. The area has both lowlands and hills. Its main landscape units are the Zagreb Basin (Zagrebačka kotlina) and the Croatian Central Mountains (Zagorje) in the west, the Slavonic Mountains (Slavonske planine), the Dráva Plain (Podravska ravnica) and the Lower Sava Plain (Posavska ravnica) in the east. The final reaches of the Alps and the lumps of the crystalline foundation (Medvednica, Papuk, etc.) surface in the form of medium-high island mountains from the gentle hilly area consisting of young inland lake sediments. The north-west-southeast direction Dinari Mountains (Dinaridi) divides the country in two in the north, and the border of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina runs along its long stretches to the south. The country's highest point, Dinara (1831 m), rises along the Bosnian border, which is the highest peak and namesake of the entire mountain range. Various surface and subsurface karst forms can be observed in the limestone mountains. The average height of the mountain range is 1000–1500 m, and its westernmost ranges border the coast. The two main landscapes of the Croatian section of the mountain range are Gorski Kotar and Lika. Croatian coast or Croatian Adriatic (Hrvatska obala): the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea on land means 1,778 km of coastline, but if the circumference of the islands is taken into account, the total is 5,835 km. The number of islands in the Croatian Adriatic is 1,185, and the length of its island coasts is 4,057 km. Croatia's largest islands: Krk, Cres, Brač, Hvar, Pag, Dugi Otok and Rab. The number of inhabited islands is 66. The largest bays of the country are Kvarner Bay and Šibenik Bay. Two large peninsulas belong to the Croatian coast: the Istrian peninsula in the north, and the Pelješac peninsula in the south, between Split and Dubrovnik. The Adriatic coast gradually deepens in the north-south direction, avg