French Emperor Napoleon I

Article

July 5, 2022

Napoleon Bonaparte (Ajaccio, Corsica, Kingdom of France, August 15, 1769 - Saint Helena Island, Great Britain, May 5, 1821) French general, military leader, politician, consul of the First French Republic between 1799 and 1804, then the Emperor of the French Empire as Napoleon I first from 1804 to 1814, then for one hundred days between March and June 1815. His known nicknames are "the Corsican" and "the little chaplain", while his opponents also referred to him as "the Corsican terror". The VII. Piusz's concordat with the Pope and his administrative, military, educational and legal reforms had a decisive impact on the development of French society. In just over a decade, his armies fought nearly every country in Europe, often simultaneously, and brought much of continental Europe under his country's rule, either by conquest or alliance. His string of successes was broken by the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. After the subsequent defeat in Leipzig, in 1814, the allied armies invaded the territory of the French Empire, forcing him to abdicate. He was exiled to the island of Elba, but returned the following year and retook power for a hundred days. On June 18, 1815, he suffered a final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. In order to prevent him from returning, the victorious powers exiled him to the island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he lived under British supervision until his death in 1821. One of the most prominent figures in European history, one of the most famous and most talked about generals, one of the great icons of military leadership. He fought a total of 56 victorious battles. In his pursuits, he is a follower of Alexander the Great, and he is still one of the most famous Frenchmen, and at the same time the most famous Corsican. Napoleon introduced civil laws in the occupied territories, thereby helping the dissolution of feudalism and the establishment of modern, civil states.

His youth

Napoleon Bonaparte was born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica, the fourth child and third son of lawyer Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. A son and a daughter were born before him, but they died in infancy. He had an older brother, Joseph, and the other six siblings were younger than him: Lucien, Élisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline and Jérôme. In his youth, his name was also spelled Nabulione, Nabulio, Napolionne and Napulione. His family, the Buonapartes, were a noble family of Tuscan origin, who moved to the island of Corsica in the 16th century, his maternal ancestors, the Ramolins, were also noble, of Genoese origin. Napoleon was born in the same year that the Republic of Genoa ceded Corsica to France after about 500 years of Genoese rule. His parents also joined the Corsican resistance and fought against the French to maintain independence. His father was appointed representative of Corsica in 1777 XVI. In the court of King Louis of France. In his childhood, he was greatly influenced by his mother, whose firm discipline prevented the young Napoleon from becoming agitated. He later stated, "The future fate of the child is always the work of the mother." His maternal grandmother married into the Swiss Fesch family and Napoleon's uncle, Cardinal Joseph Fesch, became the protector of the Bonaparte family for a few years. His noble, moderately wealthy background gave him more opportunities to study. In December 1778, he was not even ten years old when his father took him to France, where he studied for a short time at the college in Autun, and then on May 15, 1779, he enrolled as a scholar at the Brienne-le-Château Royal Military Academy. He spent five years here. In his youth he was a militant anti-French Corsican patriot