II.

Article

August 14, 2022

II. Károly (known as Little Károly) (1345 – February 24, 1386) Hungarian from the House of Anjou and – III. Under the name Károly – king of Naples and prince of Achaia. He reigned in Naples from June 2, 1381, and in Hungary from December 31, 1385 until his death. It received the adjective Parvus (Small) because of its stature, in Italy it was also referred to by the adjective Pacis, della Pace (Peaceful). After the death of his father, Prince Louis of Durazzo, he entered the Hungarian royal court as a young prince, where he became a talented general alongside King Louis the Great. After the death of King Louis the Great, in accordance with his last will, his 11-year-old daughter, Mária, was crowned "queen" of Hungary by Archbishop Demeter of Esztergom in Székesfehérvár on September 17, 1382. At first, there was no sign that Károly Kis wanted to interfere in Hungarian affairs, he was still busy securing his power in Naples. When he successfully took control of the Kingdom of Naples during his campaign launched with the support of the Pope and the Hungarian king, the question of the Kingdom of Hungary also came up. In Hungary, at the initiative and with the help of his party, at the end of 1385 he was crowned as the legal king. But at the beginning of his reign, on February 7, 1386, he was mortally wounded during a court conspiracy, and died on February 24. Thus, he became the reigning monarch for the shortest period of time in Hungarian history. With his murder, the Kingdom of Hungary plunged into a state of division and civil war lasting more than a decade and a half. Only five months had to pass before the main plotters and the executioner of the murder met the same fate.

Origin, relatives

He comes from the Durazzo branch of the 3rd Neapolitan and Hungarian House of Anjou (Capeting). His father, Duke Louis of Durazzo of Anjou, who was one of the Dukes of Anjou brought to Hungary during the first Neapolitan campaign and imprisoned in Visegrád, was the grandson of Mária Árpád-házi and Károly Sánta. His mother was Countess Margit Sanseverino. His wife was Margit of Durazzo, the daughter of Charles of Durazzo and Maria of Naples, the royal princess executed by Louis the Great in Aversa, the great-granddaughter of Mária of Árpád and Károly Sánta, her husband's first cousin on the paternal side. His son, László of Naples, became a Neapolitan after his father was murdered king and Hungarian counter-king. His daughters, Maria and Johanna, are princesses of Naples. Johanna, II. Later, after the death of her younger brother, during her father's duchy of Slavonia, she was born in Zára, in 1373, as Johanna, Queen of Naples. His first daughter named Mária died as a small child. Through his grandfather János, Duke of Durazzo, he was first-degree related to the second generation of the Durazzo branch of the 3rd House of Anjou, and second-degree related to the second generation of the Neapolitan, Hungarian and Taranto branches. After the titular Emperor Philip of Taranto died in 1373, Károly Kis became the oldest male member of the House of Anjou in Naples.

His life

The Young Prince

After the second Neapolitan campaign, in October 1352, King Louis the Great of Hungary ordered the surrender of the castles of the Kingdom of Naples still in Hungarian hands, the papal commissioner - Péter De Sancto Martiale - arrived in Naples in 1353 to take over the castles. Duke Lajos of Durazzo, relying on the refugees from Naples and the remnants of the remaining Hungarian troops, rebelled against Queen Johanna, who had returned to Naples. He sent several letters from Apulia to the Hungarian king to recall him, but the letters ended up in the hands of the Neapolitan queen. A peace was concluded between Johanna and Lajos through the mediation of the Pope, but after the peace was concluded, Johanna imprisoned Duke Lajos of Durazzo. Louis died in Castel Nuovo - probably as a result of poisoning - on July 22, 1362. At that time, Lajos Durazzói sent his 17-year-old son, K