August 14, 2022

India (Hindi: भारत, ISO: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गाराजा, ISO Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is an independent country in South Asia, the seventh largest and second most populous country on Earth, and its capital is New Delhi. The shores of the country, which includes 28 states and 7 federal territories, are washed by the Indian Ocean in the south, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The total length of its coastline is 7,517 kilometers. It is bordered by Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north-east, and Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma) to the east. The country is also bordered by sea with Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Indonesia. Often referred to as a subcontinent, India's long history has deservedly made it a country of diverse cultural values. The initial Indus Valley Civilization, followed by important trade routes and the ancient Indian empires established in ancient times, played an important role in the scientific, cultural and commercial rise of the subcontinent. Two major world religions, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as two other major religions, Jainism and Sikhism, originate from the territory of historical India, but the country's cultural development was fundamentally influenced by Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Islam, which appeared in the first millennium. The era of the rise and fall of great medieval empires ended with the emergence of the British East India Company in the 18th century, and in the following century the United Kingdom colonized the entire subcontinent. It became an independent country in 1947 with the Indian independence movement; the formation of modern India began with the movement marked by the name of Mahatma Gandhi. The ruling party of the country is currently the conservative, nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The India of our time is achieving astonishing results in many respects. Based on the nominal gross domestic product (GDP), it is the 5th largest economy in the world, and the third largest based on purchasing power. The reforms of the last decade have made India the fastest growing economy in the world. The country could become the world's largest economy by 2050. Meanwhile, it struggles with serious problems: its biggest challenges are overpopulation, poverty, illiteracy and malnutrition.


According to the 2009 edition of the Oxford Dictionary, the name "India" is derived from the classical Latin word India, which referred to South Asia and an uncertain region to its east. This name India can be derived from the name of the Indus River and its surroundings. Thanks to Alexander the Great's conquests, the name used by the ancient Greeks also survived; Greek sources refer to today's Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί), which means the people of the Indus. The name Indus comes from the Old Persian word Hindu. The roots of this word come from the Sanskrit name Sindhu, which in the ancient language of India denoted the region of the Indus River. The Indian constitution officially recognizes the country's Hindi name: Bharat (pronunciation). This name can be derived from the Sanskrit name of a legendary Indian king, Bharata, the story of his descendants is told in one of India's famous epics, the Mahabharata. The name Hindustan means the land of the Hindus in Persian. Although this name historically only referred to North India, which was also strongly influenced by Islam, it is sometimes used today to mean India as a whole.



From a geological point of view, the largest part of the continent-sized country is located on the Indian tectonic plate, which is one of the smallest plates on Earth. Seventy-five million years ago, the subcontinent separated from the southern protocontinent, Gondwana, began to move very intensively, and it