August 14, 2022
India (Hindi: भारत, ISO: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गाराजा, ISO Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is an independent country in South Asia, the seventh largest and second most populous country on Earth, and its capital is New Delhi. The shores of the country, which includes 28 states and 7 federal territories, are washed by the Indian Ocean in the south, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The total length of its coastline is 7,517 kilometers. It is bordered by Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north-east, and Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma) to the east. The country is also bordered by sea with Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Indonesia. Often referred to as a subcontinent, India's long history has deservedly made it a country of diverse cultural values. The initial Indus Valley Civilization, followed by important trade routes and the ancient Indian empires established in ancient times, played an important role in the scientific, cultural and commercial rise of the subcontinent. Two major world religions, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as two other major religions, Jainism and Sikhism, originate from the territory of historical India, but the country's cultural development was fundamentally influenced by Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Islam, which appeared in the first millennium. The era of the rise and fall of great medieval empires ended with the emergence of the British East India Company in the 18th century, and in the following century the United Kingdom colonized the entire subcontinent. It became an independent country in 1947 with the Indian independence movement; the formation of modern India began with the movement marked by the name of Mahatma Gandhi. The ruling party of the country is currently the conservative, nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The India of our time is achieving astonishing results in many respects. Based on the nominal gross domestic product (GDP), it is the 5th largest economy in the world, and the third largest based on purchasing power. The reforms of the last decade have made India the fastest growing economy in the world. The country could become the world's largest economy by 2050. Meanwhile, it struggles with serious problems: its biggest challenges are overpopulation, poverty, illiteracy and malnutrition.