Iran (Persian: ایران), officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران), an older name for Persia is a Middle Eastern country in Southwest Asia. He is a founding member of the United Nations, OPEC, the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the ENKM.
Iran is a multicultural country with many ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups. The largest are the Persians, then the Azeris and Kurds.
Although the country has been known to the locals as Iran since at least the Akhaimenida period, in the West until 1935 it was referred to only as Persia. In 1959, Iranian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi announced that both names could be used. Following the 1979 revolution led by Ayatollah Homeini, the country’s official name became the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian جمهوری اسلامی ایران), which is a theocratic (Islamic) republic in its state form.
The ancient form of the word Iran (ایران) is Arianam, which once called the country of the people of Iran or Persia (first in the Saxon period). In addition to this term, the term Eránsahr was also used. Arianam is the plural of the word "Indo-Iranian peoples," which means "Land of the Aryans."
The term “Persia” has been used by European countries to denote the country since the Akhaimenida dynasty of the Persian Empire, in the i. e. From the 6th century. Greek historians in particular used the term Persis (Περσίς), which means “The land of the Persians”.
Iran is the second largest country in the Middle East, with an area of 1,648,195 km². Its neighbors are Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan in the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east, the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf in the south, and Iraq and Turkey in the west.
The central part of its territory is made up of desert and steppe-covered highlands dotted with swamps and salt lakes, to which the chains of Alborz on the Caspian Sea in the north and the Zagros Mountains in the south-west are connected.
The territory of Iran is made up of the Iranian plateau and the mountain ranges (Zagros, Alborz and other mountains) that surround the plateau and form part of the Eurasian mountain system.
The basins of the plateau in the east are partly deserts filled with salt lakes, but in the more plateau areas to the west, higher rainfall has resulted in the formation of a steppe.
The two largest mountain chains in Iran are Alborz in the north and Zagros in the west. The highest point of Alborz and at the same time in Iran is Damavand (5771 m) near Tehran. The highest peak of Zagros is the 4409 m high Dena.
Larger plains lie outside the Iranian plateau and peripheral mountains, primarily on the Caspian Sea and the coasts of the Persian and Gulf of Oman.
To the north of Iran is the Caspian Sea, to its south are the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Due to the unfavorable climatic conditions, no long, abundant rivers have formed on land. Its only navigable-sized river is the Karun, which joins the Satt el-Arab (aka Arvand Rūd) River, which flows into the Persian Gulf in the south. Larger stagnant waters in the country are Lake Urmia in the northwest, as well as some larger salt marshes in the eastern part of the country, such as Dast-e Kavir and Dast-e Lut.
Iran’s climate is diverse, with several climate zones present in its territory at the same time.
The driest is the plateau basins dominated by the temperate desert climate, especially in the eastern parts, where the wind that brings moisture does not reach. Here real deserts developed. Precipitation is slightly higher in the western part of the plateau, which is consequently more dense