The Iranian Revolution or the Iranian Islamic Revolution (Persian انقلاب اسلامی, transcribed enġelâb e eslâmi, in English English:) By early 1979, the ruler had been ousted, and although this was not originally intended by the rebels, the Shiite clergy led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was eventually brought to power. The new leadership proclaimed the Islamic Republic of Iran on April 1, 1979, whose constitution was adopted on December 3, and by about 1981 it had managed to complete the formation of a state system that is still theocratic in nature.
Although the U.S. Cold War fears that the overthrown Western-friendly regime would be replaced by a Persian leadership committed to the Soviet Union have not been substantiated, relations between the two states have deteriorated drastically. The revolution also resulted in the outbreak of the Iraq-Iran war in 1980. The series of events played a major role in the transformation of Islamic fundamentalism into an international political factor and in the transformation of the Western world’s relationship with Islam in general.
When Reza Pahlavi seized power in Iran in 1925, he, like his role model, Ataturk, embarked on a wide-ranging policy of reform, which included violent secularization. After the overthrow of the dictatorial ruler in 1941, his son, Mohammad Reza, followed a similar path after being able to stabilize his power in 1953 with the overthrow of Mohammad Mosaddeg, the charismatic prime minister, with American help. The Shah, which revived its opposition hard and revived anachronistic Persian traditions, became an important ally of the United States and Israel during the Cold War. The 1962 land reform, the so-called however, instead of the expected increase in popularity, the White Revolution only caused severe damage to agriculture and millions of peasants who lost their livelihoods moved to big cities while the country was in need of agricultural imports. Although the state benefited enormously from its western-supervised oil reserves at the time of the first oil price explosion, there was little improvement in living standards despite dynamic economic growth and forced modernization. This was compounded by the fact that in 1971 the shah held a lavish ceremony at the ruins of Persepolis, the ancient Persian capital, to celebrate the 2,500th anniversary of the empire. The ceremony, also known as the Persepolis Party, further infuriated the population for the ruler’s use of oil revenues for such useless and decadent luxury rather than for improving the living conditions of the population.
Resistance movements of various colors were organized against the Shah and the elite that served him, despite the extensive activities of the infamous secret police, the SZAVÁK, known for their cruelty. Among them were Shiite religious like Ayatollah Khomeyni radical and moderate adherents of Ayatollah Sariatmadari; among them were intellectuals and urban (National Front) and militarists, such as the communist Tude who resurrected after decades of persecution, the anarcho-Bolshevik Mojahedin-e Halk, and the racist Fed. In such a situation, a wave of dissatisfaction erupted.
Against the Shah
An article appeared in a state newspaper in January 1978 calling Ruhollah Khomeini, a high-ranking, influential member of the Shiite clergy, already exiled in 1964, among others, homosexual. The massive outbreak began in a protest in one of the largest Shiite centers in the city of Gom, which was dispersed by police. The fish