Iceland

Article

January 27, 2022

Iceland, Iceland: Iceland, an island nation in the North Atlantic, between Greenland and Scotland, northwest of the Faroe Islands, on the border of two tectonic plates of global significance - the Eurasian and North American plates.

Geography

Terrain

Iceland is located in the central part of the North Atlantic. The Arctic Circle passes through Grímsey, just north of the main island (the island is also home to the northernmost settlement in the country). Unlike Greenland, we treat Iceland as part of Europe, not North America. It belongs to Scandinavia culturally, economically and linguistically. The Earth is the eighteenth, the second largest island in Europe. A volcanic island that rises above the surface of the Mid-Atlantic ridge. According to plate tectonics, the magma broke through the fissure between the two receding rock plates (Eurasian and North American) and solidified. Due to volcanic eruptions, the area of ​​the island has been steadily increasing since its inception. The signs of the two plates are still visible on the surface of the island. There are 140 volcanoes on the island, but the number of craters exceeds a thousand. 26 volcanoes, some intermittent, are still in operation. Its most famous volcano is the 1491 m high Hekla. There are plenty of geysers in Iceland (the word itself is of Icelandic origin), and geothermal energy is readily available, so hot water and heating are extremely cheap. Roughly 10% of the island’s surface is covered by inland ice. The 4790 km long coastline is varied by many lovely fjords. Here is the largest continuous ice field in Europe, Vatnajökull, with an area of ​​8,500 km² and a thickness of up to 1,000 m in some places. The settlements are also almost exclusively on the coast, as the interior of the country is very difficult to inhabit, barren, barren. The largest cities are Reykjavík (the northernmost capital of the world), Akureyri and Keflavík, the latter being the only international airport in the country. Highest point: Hvannadalshnúkur, 2110 m.

Hydrography

There are no longer rivers in Iceland because the interior of the island is dry and cold. The water network is young, the fall curves of the rivers are unbalanced, and beautiful waterfalls erupt along the faults and lava benches (Gullfoss, Skogafoss, Svartifoss). The most extensive waterfalls in Europe are located in Iceland.

Climate

Despite its northern location, the island’s climate is less harsh due to the mitigating effects of the Irminger Stream, which is part of the wider Gulf Stream system. The whole country belongs to the cold zone of the ocean climate. The relatively warm current on the south and west coasts provides complete ice-free, while the north and east coasts rarely but can reach drifting polar ice in late winter. For example, while sea ice of virtually no appearance appeared between 1919 and 1964, a significant mass arrived on the northern shores in 1965 and 1968. This usually causes further cooling throughout the island and reduces the tendency to rain. The difference in average temperature between the south and north coasts of the island is only 1.5 degrees. The lowest temperature ever measured in Iceland, -38 ° C, was measured on 22 January 1918 in the central part of the country (in Reykjavík on the coast almost at the same time, on 21 January 1918, the negative record was -24.5 ° C). -kal). The absolute heat record to date was set on June 22, 1939, at 30.5 ° C on the south coast of the Teigarhorn farm. The southern coast has the wettest areas. Precipitation of more than 4000 mm per year may occur in the southern forecourt of Vatnajökull. The inner, shady part of the island is dry, with little rainfall in some places

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