Jamaica

Article

August 14, 2022

Jamaica is an island country of the Greater Antilles, 240 kilometers long and 80 kilometers wide. It is located in the Caribbean Sea, 680 kilometers east of the Central American mainland, 150 kilometers south of Cuba, and 180 kilometers west of Haiti on Hispaniola. The name of the island comes from the indigenous Taíno Indian word "xaymaca", which means "Island of springs". After its discovery, it was a Spanish possession, and then fell into the hands of the English. The country's population is quite mixed, but the vast majority are descendants of slaves brought over from Africa. Jamaica is the third most populous English-speaking country in the Americas, after the United States and Canada. This is where the Rastafarian movement comes from. Jamaica is the birthplace of reggae music, Bob Marley was also born here.

Geography

Terrain

Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean. Its interior is covered by extensive mountains surrounded by a coastal plain, which is why the larger cities are all located near the coast. Such as: Kingston, Spanish Town, Mandeville and Montego Bay.More than 120 streams and rivers start their way from its mountains to white sandy beaches, but rocky coastlines are not rare either. The reason for its varied surface forms and its entire existence is the pressing together of the South and North American rock plates, as a result of which it emerged from the sea together with the other members of the Greater Antilles archipelago. The highest point in the country: Blue Mountain Peak, 2256 meters.

Water drawing

Main rivers: Black River, Rio Minho.

Climate

Its climate is tropical, hot and rainy. In the mountainous interior of the island, the climate is somewhat cooler than in the flat coastal areas. There are actually no seasonal temperature changes. The average temperature during the day is 31 °C and at night around 21 °C. The rainy season starts in June and lasts until November, the rainiest month is September, but showers and thunderstorms can occur throughout the year. It is 1-2 °C warmer in the rainy season. On some sections of the south coast of the island, the winds that bring the rain are intercepted by the mountains. These regions are relatively dry.

Wildlife, nature conservation

Due to the territorial demands of agriculture, only 24% of the island is now covered by forests, in which remarkable biodiversity has developed as a result of millions of years of seclusion. It is home to more than 600 different herbaceous and 300 woody plant species, and its fauna is just as special. Most of the forests are located in the mountains, the coastal plain is cultivated, and the coast is again covered with forests.

National parks

The Jamaica National Heritage Trust is responsible for the care of Jamaica's national heritage, which includes national parks and botanical gardens. National parks maintained by this organization: Blue Mountains - the area of ​​the island's highest mountains, Jamaica's first national park. Clydesdale National Forest Park - coffee plantations are also part of the forests. Hollywell National Park (Hollywell National Park) - a cold region by Jamaican standards. Its birdlife is rich.

History

The island i. e. 4000 and i. e. Between 1000 and 1000, it was populated by Arawaks and perhaps Taíno Indians from South America. When the Europeans arrived, about 300,000 indigenous Indians could live here. There is very little trace of the Arawak culture left, but even today there are a small number of Arawak/Taíno Indians in Jamaica, because a small part of them survived the aggressions of the Spanish and English conquerors. Christopher Columbus landed here for the first time in 1494 and declared it a property of Spain. The first Jamaican colony is Seville. This in 1554, repeated pirate attacks