James Webb space telescope

Article

January 27, 2022

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST, formerly NGST, Next Generation Space Telescope) is an 6.5-meter-diameter infrared space telescope. It will take the place of the Hubble Space Telescope (which will otherwise remain operational) as NASA’s most important astrophysics project, the best space telescope ever built. Thanks to its sensitive instruments, it will be able to observe the farthest objects and events in the universe like the formation of the first galaxies. It was jointly built and operated by NASA, ESA and the Canadian Space Agency. In 2002, he was named after James Webb, NASA's second director. It was first scheduled to launch in 2018 from the Guyana Space Center, but the date was postponed to 2019 for the first time due to multiple analysis of test results and the complex assembly and assembly of the telescope. The telescope was launched on December 25, 2021 at 12:20 PM (UTC) from the Guyana Space Center on the northeast coast of South America. The project will be managed from the Goddard Space Center. The new telescope is significantly lighter than the Hubble Space Telescope’s weight of 11.1 tons, weighing 6.2 tons, but much larger on the main mirror, 6.5 meters compared to the Hubble 2.4-meter mirror. Unlike Hubble, which performs near-ultraviolet and near-infrared (0.1–1 μm) spectra, JWST will observe a lower frequency (0.6–28.3 μm), allowing it to see objects with high redshifts. then which are too far away for Hubble. For proper operation, the telescope must be kept very cold (below 50 K or −223 ° C) in order to perform its observations properly, so its orbit will be close to point L2 Lagrange 2 of the Solar-Earth system (0.010 CsE from Earth). At this point, you can use your tennis court-sized parasol to block out the interfering infrared radiation from the Sun, Earth, and Moon at the same time, which could otherwise heat up the system. The first developments began in 1996 and would have been completed by 2007, for $ 500 million, but many times the project was redesigned and postponed. According to its preliminary budget, its total cost is approx. $ 4,500 million, of which roughly € 300 million is from ESA, which includes the launch of JWST, and the Canadian Space Agency will contribute $ 39 million to the project. Costs have multiplied since then and, according to the Office of Government Control, could cross the $ 8.8 billion mark. Its construction was completed in 2016, when the testing period began. Its launch was postponed again in March 2018 when one of the day shirts ruptured. In March 2020, testing was suspended due to the Covid19 pandemic. Following the resumption of work, the planned launch was postponed to 31 October 2021, but due to problems with the Ariane-5 launch vehicle, it had to wait until 25 December for its launch. The launch took place at the scheduled time during the Ariane VA256 spaceflight, with the telescope detached from the launch vehicle 27 minutes after launch. Following the detachment from the launch vehicle, the telescope has successfully switched to its own power supply and is currently on its way to its observation point.

Mission

The main scientific mission of JWST consists of four parts: searching for the light of the first stars and galaxies that emerged shortly after the big bang studying the formation and evolution of galaxies studying the formation of stars and planetary systems study of planetary systems and the origin of life.Sources to be studied are low temperature

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