Jurij Lvovics Averbah
Yuri Lvovich Averbah, in Russian: Юрий Львович Авербах (Kaluga, February 8, 1922 - Moscow, May 7, 2022) He is a two-time European champion in his team. President of the Chess Union of the Soviet Union (1972-77), Secretary-General and Vice-President.
He is also an outstanding writer, his excellent three-volume endgame theory is one of the best, he has been translated into many languages. He was the first hundred-year-old FIDE Grandmaster. Although his vision and hearing deteriorated, he continued to devote time to chess-related activities. He graduated from the Department of Internal Combustion Engines of the Moscow State Technical University in 1946, named Bauman.
He played chess from the age of seven. He appeared in the national high school competition in 1938, where he won a competition for 15- to 16-year-olds. He won 6th place at the Moscow Chess Championship in 1944, earning the title of Chess Master, and then won the Moscow Chess Championship in 1950 and 1962 before Grandmaster Andor Lilienthal. He made 16 appearances in the finals of the Soviet Chess Championship, in which he won first place in 1954, ahead of Mark Tajmanov and Viktor Korchnoj. In 1956, Boris Spassky and Mark Taymanov finished in 2nd place in the tie. He won the European Championship with the Soviet Union in 1957 and 1965. In 1952, he won the title of International Grandmaster.
Champion of Pribaltika (1946), he took first place in the Rjumin Memorial Competition (1948). His first international competition was the 1949 Moscow-Budapest team match in 1949. He has won several major international tournaments: 1st place: Dresden (1956); Jakarta (1960, 1979); Adelaide (1960); Vienna (1961); Moscow (1962); Rio de Janeiro (1965); Christchurch (1967); Bucharest (1971); Polanica Zdrój (1975; Rubinstein Memorial Competition). He was at the forefront of the following prestigious tournaments: Hastings (1959/1960) - 2-3; Chislovodsk (1964) and Mar del Plata (1965) - 3; Palma de Mallorca (1972) - 5-7; Polanica Zdrój (1976) - 2-4 .; Reggio Emilia (1977/78) - 2 .; Manila (1979) - 3-5. place.
His chess work
In addition to the endgames, he also made a lasting impression in opening theory. This is evidenced by the opening versions named after it:
In royal defense, the “accelerated Averbah version” (ECO E70): 1.d4 Hf6 2.c4 g6 3.Hc3 Fg7 4.e4 d6 5.Fg5
In defense of nimzoindia with Averbah (ECO E30): 1.d4 Hf6 2.c4 e6 3.Hc3 Fb4 4.Fg5 h6 5.Fh4 c5 6.d5 b5
Averbah version of the Royal Indian defense (ECO E73): 1.d4 Hf6 2.c4 g6 3. Hc3 Fg7 4.e4 d6 5.Fe2 O-O 6.Fg5
Averbah system of the Infantry Game (Modern Defense): 1.d4 g6 2.c4 Fg7 3. Hc3 d6 4.e4
Averbah version of Indian protection (ECO E14): 1.d4 Hf6 2.c4 e6 3.Hf3 b6 4.e3 Fb7 5.Fd3 c5 6.O-O Fe7 7.b3 O-O 8.Fb2 cxd4 9.Hxd4
Averbah version of the Spanish opening (ECO C87): 1.e4 e5 2.Hf3 Hc6 3.Fb5 a6 4.Fa4 Hf6 5.O-O Fe7 6.Be1 d6
In royal defense, the semi-Averbah system (ECO E73): 1.d4 Hf6 2.c4 g6 3. Hc3 Fg7 4.e4 d6 5.Fe2 O-O 6.Fe3
Activities of chess leaders and judges
He held several positions in the Chess Union of the Soviet Union, was its chairman from 1972 to 1977, but later also vice-president as its secretary general. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the International Chess Federation and then chairman of the Qualification Committee. He was the Chief Judge of the Garri Kasparov-Nigel Short PCA World Championship Final and was also the Chief Judge of the 1994 Chess Olympics in Moscow at the age of 73.
His expert work
The three-volume endgame encyclopedia was published in the 1950s