Transcarpathia

Article

May 21, 2022

Transcarpathia (Ukrainian: Закарпатська область, Hungarian transliteration: Transcarpathian Oblast, Transcarpathian region) is a region of western Ukraine, neighboring Hungary, Slovakia, Romania and, to a lesser extent, Poland. The region differs in many respects from the rest of Ukraine. This is mainly due to the fact that although most of its population is of Ruthenian origin, Transcarpathia developed independently of Ukraine until World War II, Hungary for about a thousand years, then Czechoslovakia after the Treaty of Trianon, and Ukraine from 1945 to 1991.

Geography

Its area is 12,800 km². Four-fifths are mountainous, one-fifth lowland (Tiszahát in Bereg and Ugocs). The three major mountain ranges of the Carpathians here are the Beskids and the Gorges on the actual geographical boundary and the watershed, the central and eastern parts of the county are occupied by the Poloninas and the Vihorlát-Gutini mountain range. The Maramures Mountains extend into the southeastern part of the region. The highest point in Transcarpathia - and at the same time in Ukraine - is the 2061 m high Hoverla. Its largest river is the Tisza, with a length of 200 kilometers. Other major rivers are the Tarac, the Talabor, the Great Branch, the Borzsa, the Latorca and the Ung. The largest natural lake is Lake Szinevéri in the district of Ökörmező (Mizshirja).

History

In prehistoric times and antiquity, it was a sparsely populated area due to the harshness of the northern Carpathians and the marshland of the Great Plain. According to the disputed statement of some sources, Szekler Hungarians who were adventuring before today's conquest came to the area from today's Transylvania. However, according to the generally accepted position, Árpád's armies entered the area through the Vereckei Pass in 895 (or 896). Of the 45 counties organized in the time of Stephen I (Saint), Borsova (later Bereg) and Ung counties are located in Transcarpathia. From then on, Transcarpathia was an integral part of the Kingdom of Hungary. In the Árpádian period, the area became the starting point for various campaigns (mainly towards Halics). In the 11th century, Kun and Pecheneg attacks took place here several times, until 1085, when László I (Szent) defeated the invading Pecheneg armies. In 1233 he concluded II. King Endre of Hungary and the papal legate of James signed the Bereg Convention, which took action against the Jews and Ishmaelites and guaranteed the rights, privileges and incomes of the Catholic Church. ARC. At the beginning of Béla's reign, the area was inhabited by Hungarian soldiers and nobles, but the Tartar invasion in 1241 wreaked havoc on these areas, so later German settlers arrived, and then the flow of Ruthenians from Halics began. With the extinction of the Árpád House, the little kings (Aba Amádé and Borsa Kopasz) came to power in the area. During Károly Róbert's struggles against them, the Hungarian nobility loyal to the oligarchies emigrated. During the reign of Louis the Great, salt mining in the Maramures region began to flourish. Transcarpathia in the country, which was divided into three parts, originally belonged to the Royal Hungary ruled by the Habsburg House, and from 1567 it was partly taken over by the Principality of Transylvania. During the Peace of Vienna, which ended the war of independence of István Bocskai, with the exception of Ung County, the whole of Transcarpathia came to the Principality of Transylvania, and then remained there with several interruptions until 1648. In 1632 II. Ferdinand I. György Rákóczi presented the castle of Munkács to the Transylvanian prince. After the three-year siege of Ilona Zrínyi, who was fighting to the end during the Thököly War of Independence, he finally gave up the castle of Munkács in 1688. During the Rákóczi War of Independence, Transcarpathia was on the side of the Kurucs. They left from here in May 1703