July 5, 2022

Chemistry, also known as chemistry or chemistry, is a natural science dealing with qualitative changes in substances. However, as a result of the results of modern physics, this definition is only valid if we expand the concept of matter itself. From the second half of the 20th century, we consider not only corpuscular entities as matter, but also, for example, the gravitational field and light; this - in a simplified way - follows from the fact that we consider energy to be one of the forms of appearance of matter, which is expressed by the relation Emc². Today, chemistry is closely related to other natural sciences: physics, biology, mathematics, geography; modern medicine is unthinkable without its results, and it is also essential for a more thorough knowledge of the technical sciences. The multidirectional connection resulted in a whole series of interdisciplinary sciences (physical chemistry, biochemistry, etc.), which are also of increasing importance. Chemistry is a basic science, an applied science and an experimental science.


The name chemistry comes from alchemy, which is a direct adaptation of the Arabic al-kīmīā (الكيمياء). The Arabic word comes from the Greek χημία or χημεία ("khémeia"), which may have been taken from the ancient Egyptian language (from the word kemet, the native name of Egypt), but possibly from the Greek χημεία, meaning " merge".

History of Chemistry

The science of chemistry can be divided into four main historical periods; as in so many natural sciences, a breakthrough occurred around the 18th century. He was the first chemist, a material changer, and a primitive man who used fire. After that, experience was gathered for thousands of years, the ancient Greeks came up with a kind of atomic model. Democritus already claimed that matter consists of atoms. He imagined atoms as particles of different shapes, invisible to the naked eye. For example - according to him - if the substance is sweet, then the shape of the atom is spherical, if it is spicy, then it is rough, if it is stretchy (e.g.: honey), then its atoms are elongated and stuck together. In contrast, the accepted assumption was that materials consist of a mixture of the four primal elements (fire, water, earth, air) in different proportions. In the Middle Ages, research was carried out within the framework of alchemy, but today it is considered an occult and/or mystical science. During the search for the elixir of life that ensures immortality and the philosopher's stone that turns all metals into gold, many processes and compounds were discovered and developed. Parallel to alchemy, there was iatrochemistry (iatrochemistry), which was the "chemistry of life processes" and was opposed to alchemy. Later, from the 18th century, the discipline began to develop rapidly. They are just inventing the industrial production of sulfuric acid, and not long after, the vis vitalis theory is overturned, that is, it is possible to produce an organic compound from an inorganic compound. The new elements are discovered one after the other, when a Russian scientist, Mendeleev, comes up with an idea: by grouping the elements according to their atomic weight, their properties change periodically, so he was able to predict the missing elements from the table and even their properties (for example, gallium, germanium); his table was later called the periodic table. The rapidly developing world also creates new branches of science in chemistry, such as petrochemicals. The atomic theory is constantly developing (Dalton, Rutherford, Thomson, Millikan, Bohr), then, as a result of the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg, the natural sciences are placed on completely new foundations, the atomic theory that is still accepted today is formed - all you have to do is discover the neutron James Chadw