January 27, 2022

Kazakhstan (formerly Kazakhstan) (Kazakh: Qazaqstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan) is an independent country in Central Asia. It is the 9th largest country in the world and the largest landlocked country. It has one of the lowest population densities in the world, at around 7 people / km². Since 1997, its capital has been Astana, which was later renamed President-Sultan. It is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Eurasian Economic Union, the CSTO, the OSCE, the Islamic Conference and the Turkish states.


The country is bordered on the north and west by Russia, on the east by China, on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and on the southwest by the largest lake on Earth: the Caspian Sea.


It stretches west-east from the Caspian Sea to the Altai Mountains. Its territory is interspersed with large steppes and semi-deserts (Turani Plain, Turgaj Gate, Kizilum, Kara-kum, Rin Desert) and marshes along the Caspian Sea. In the eastern part of the country, north of Lake Balhas, lies the Kazakh ridge. High mountains stretch from the southeast (Tien-san) and east (Altai). Its highest point is Han Tengri (7010 m) in Tien-san. The diverse topography of the country can be divided into the following units: In the west, the surface of the Caspian Plain was filled with sea, lake, and river sediments; two parts are the Caspian Plain and the Caspian Lowlands; Mangistau (Mangislak), in the south-western part of the Karagije (Karaga) ditch. In the north, the double hillback of Mugajar (Mugojjar) is a strongly continental, semi-desert continuation of the Ural Hills. Further south are the clay and debris deserts of the Isthmus plateau separating the Caspian Plain and the Turani Plain. In the middle, the Turani Plain, filled with rivers and wind, expands: it includes the Aralont Plain, the Little and Greater Barszuk Deserts, and the sand deserts of the Northern Kizilum south of Syria. The eastern part is occupied by the Kazakh region. To the north it is joined by the southern edge of the western Siberian Plain, to the west by the Turgaj Gate and the Torgaj Plateau. To the south of the Kazakh outskirts are the stripped plains of Betpak-Dala, the sandy desert of Mujun-kum and the Balkas (Balhas) Basin. The northern part of the basin is filled by Lake Balkas, and to the south lies the Hét River Plain, which is filled with river and lake sediments and is characterized by largely wind-formed sand deserts. The eastern and southeastern parts of the country are bordered by high mountains. To the north are the western chains of the Altai, to the south of the Zajsan Basin the Tarbagataj Mountains, and to the south of the run-down Ala-Cologne Basin are the Jungar-Alatau ranges. Finally, south of the narrow basin of the Ili River, there are the clumps of the Tien-san (Kara-tau, Illinois-Alatau). The Kazakh-Kyrgyz border runs along the Kyrgyz mountain range and the ridge of the Kungej-Alatau.


There is no runoff from much of the country, so large, untreated steppe lakes have developed: the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea and the Balkas. These in themselves have a catchment area of ​​considerable size. The Ural River flows into the Caspian Sea and the Sir-darja into the Aral Sea. From the north of Kazakhstan, the Irtis and its tributaries drain the waters into the Arctic Ocean. The water level in the Aral Sea has fallen by 15 meters in the last 30 years as the water of the rivers that feed the lake has been used to irrigate cotton fields. The salt and waste accumulated on the dried-up lake floor caused an ecological disaster.


Kazakhstan has a continental climate and high altitudes in the high mountains. Precipitation is low everywhere,

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