Queen Maria Theresa of Hungary

Article

May 28, 2022

Maria Theresia (formerly Mary II . The only female ruler of the Habsburg Empire and the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine House. The eldest daughter of King Charles and Krisztina Elizabeth of Princess Braunschweig and Wolfenbüttel. His forty-year reign began with the death of his father in 1740, who sought to inherit his daughter by accepting the Pragmatica sanctio in 1723. However, the order of inheritance was rejected by Prussia, Bavaria and France, among others, and at the end of 1740 they even launched a war to conquer Silesia, which gave rise to the nearly nine-year-old Austrian War of Inheritance. After the Peace Treaty of Aachen in 1748, which ended the war of the principalities, the Habsburg Empire retained its unity and entered an era of peaceful development. His later enlightened absolutist decrees also had a significant impact on Hungary, including the double customs system introduced in 1754, the Ratio Educationis of 1777, the reform and placement of the University of Trnava in Buda, and the annexation of Rijeka to Hungary. in all the countries under his rule he elevated him to the rank of co-ruler, but he still exercised real power himself. As king of Hungary, her husband took an oath in Bratislava before the Hungarian orders on September 21, 1741, but was not crowned. After the death of his wife, Maria Theresa's firstborn son in 1765, later II. He made Joseph a symbolic co-ruler. A total of sixteen children were born from his marriage, including two later German-Roman emperors and a Hungarian king, a queen from France, and a queen from Naples-Sicily.

Family

Origin, brothers

Princess Maria Theresa of Austria was born on May 13, 1717 in Vienna. His father VI. The German-Roman emperor Charles III (Hungarian King Charles III and Czech King Charles II (1685–1740) was the last male descendant of the House of Habsburg. , 1691–1750.Of the four children of the ruling couple, Princess Maria Theresa was born second: Archduke John Lipót (* / † 1716), the only son, died as an infant. Maria Theresa Amalia Archduchess Walpurga (1717–1780), later queen. Archduchess Maria Anna (1718–1744), who married Prince Charles Sándor of Lorraine (1712–1780). Archduchess Mary Amalia (1724-1730) died as a child.

Marriage, children

Maria Theresa married Prince Ferenc Stephen of Lorraine (1708–1765), Prince Joseph I of Ioord, Prince of Lorraine and Bar (1679–1729) and Princess Erzsébet Sarolta of Orléans (1676–1744) in Vienna on February 12, 1736. , to the later German-Roman emperor Francis I. In fact, they had known each other since they were children, and their friendship later became love. The condition for Francis' marriage was the surrender of Alsace, which he did for Maria Theresa. From their marriage 16 children were born and the Habsburg-Lorraine House was formed with them: To Mary Elizabeth