Measurement science

Article

July 5, 2022

The science of metrology or metrology (metrology) is the scientific field of measurement. The knowledge of the principles, methods and the conscious and consistent application of standards ensures the broad usability and mutual acceptability of the measurement results. The subject area of ​​metrology includes everything related to measurement, be it the planning and execution of the measurement procedure or the analysis of the results. Another meaning of metrology is measurement history. In this case, we mean historical auxiliary science dealing with the history and development of measures. Its task is to make the units of measurement used in different ages comparable and real for today's people.

Main areas

Scientific metrology Legal metrology Industrial metrology The task of the Hungarian Trade Licensing Office is to cover all three areas

Key Concepts

Measurement

A set of operations aimed at determining the value of a quantity. See more: measurement

Measuring device

A measuring device is a device used for measurement alone or together with additional devices.

Measure

A device that reproduces or produces unchanged one or more known values ​​of a given quantity during use, for example: weight, measuring vessel (one or more values, scaled or unscaled), standard resistance, measuring rod, standard signal generator, material sample. The given quantity can be called a reference quantity. According to the physical phenomena to be measured, there are several types of measures: length, land and area measures, three subtypes of space measures (thin, dry, volume), weight and piece measures. The combination of these is the set of measures.

Measure Types

Natural: Something that arose naturally from nature, for example, a part or whole of a human body, its movement, its ability to perform, the endowment of fertile land. These mostly do not have a measuring device. Artificial: Its creation already requires an abstracting ability, it was created partly to complement the former, and partly to replace it in the absence of a natural possibility. Most of these are also measuring devices.

Measurement system

There may be such a concrete relationship between individual units of measurement of the same kind that one can be derived from the other, one can be expressed with the other. These measures form a system. Length measurements Geodetic systems Dilute volumetric (wine measure) systems Dry void measurement (grain measurement) systems Weight measurement systems

Measurement matter

The definition and unification of the units of measurement, the combination of scientific-technical, legal and administrative knowledge and activities regarding the method of measurement. Laws, decrees, and measures establish the units, try to unify the measures, form the organization, and control the implementation.

Areas of utilization of metrology as an auxiliary science

Historical geography Economic history Science story Military history

Reasons for its formation

The development of measurement systems was forced by real needs, on the one hand, the requirements of everyday life in people's relationships with each other (definition of units of measurement for the concepts of agriculture, industry, trade), and on the other hand, the formation of social state organizations (determination of tribal territories, property boundaries, taxes, concepts and measures related to national defense). As development progressed, unification and comparability of measures became more and more important.

Short historical overview regarding Hungary

In Hungary, the first national land survey began in 1601 after the liberation struggles against the Turks