Article

November 29, 2021

Hungarian is a member of the Uralic language family, one of the Finno-Ugric languages. Its closest relatives are the Manysi and Khanty languages, followed by Udmurt, Komi, Mari and Mordvin. There are opinions that the Moldavian Csango language is an independent language - especially its northern, medieval version - so it would be the closest relative language of Hungary. Although Hungarian and international linguistics (including the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) within it: Finno-Ugric), this is disputed by several people and they try to support their position with various theories (see also: Alternative theories about the kinship of the Hungarian language). Most speakers of the Hungarian language live in Hungary. Apart from Hungary, they are mainly spoken in the other countries of the Carpathian Basin: Romania (mainly Transylvania), Slovakia, Serbia (Vojvodina), Ukraine (Transcarpathia), Croatia, Slovenia and Austria. Hungarian has been the official language of Hungary since 1836 (based on Act III of 1836) and the exclusive official language of the country since 1844 (based on Act II of 1844). It is one of the official languages ​​of the European Union. In addition, Hungarian is one of the official languages ​​in Vojvodina and three villages in Slovenia (Dobronak, Őrhodos and Lendava). The rights of minority languages ​​were last regulated in 2011. The Hungarian sign language was made official in November 2009, effective from July 2010. Hungarian is ranked 62nd among the world's languages ​​in terms of the number of native speakers. It is the 14th most widely spoken language in Europe and the most widely spoken non-Indo-European language. The Hungarian agglutinating language. The Hungarian writing system is an extended version of the Latin alphabet. Number of speakers The number of native Hungarian speakers in the world is estimated at 15 million. Nearly 13 million Hungarian-speaking people live in the European Union, of which 12.5 million live in the Carpathian Basin. In other European countries, including Israel, there are an estimated 500,000 Hungarian-speaking native speakers outside Europe, of whom 1.8 million are on the American continent (USA: 1.4 million, Canada: 315,000, South America: 100 million). -120 thousand), Australia and Oceania: 65-70 thousand, Asia: approx. 30 thousand, Africa: 10-30 thousand, but not everyone uses Hungarian in their homes. Another 2 million speak Hungarian as a second language, mainly in the countries of the Carpathian Basin. The number of Hungarian-speaking Hungarians in Hungary was 10.3 million in 1970 and 10.64 million in 1980; 5.9 million in 1970 and 6.07 million in 1980; there were 16.2 million in the world in 1970 and 16.71 million in 1980. According to the last census in historical Hungary in 1910, 12 million people spoke Hungarian.

Classification

According to the current prevailing position, the Hungarian language belongs to the Uralic language family, including the Finno-Ugric languages. The similarity between the Ugric and Finno-Permian languages ​​was discovered as early as 1717, but the exact classification of the Hungarians was controversial even in the 18th and 19th centuries, mainly for political reasons: ancient Europeanness and and for its supporters, kinship with large Eastern cultural peoples was an influential factor. Today, the Uralic language family is one of the best mapped and supported language families in the world, alongside Indo-European and Australian. In addition to the similarities of the grammatical system, a number of regular sound correspondences can be discovered in the basic vocabulary between Hungarian and other Ugric languages. For example, the Hungarian / a: / corresponds to the Khanty / o / in certain situations; to the Hungarian / h / a Khanty / x /; and the Hungarian end of the word

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