Marshal

Article

August 14, 2022

Marshal or Field Marshal, the highest rank of several former and current armies (British, Yugoslav, French, German, Soviet, Russian, Chinese forces). The name originates from the time of the Frankish kings. The marsecallus (marescalci) was their chief horseman. Since cavalry played an important role in medieval armies, the post of marshal was increasingly associated with the position of commander. The task of the marshal was to maintain order both in the court and on the battlefield, and to decide on matters concerning the knights. As a military leader, his authority gradually increased, and he became the commander of the royal armies, one of the highest-ranking soldiers of the state. With the development of ranks (and their usual "inflation"), the marshal rank was also divided into two ranks by creating the Marshal of France (marescellus Franciae, maréchal de France) above the "ordinary" marshal (maréchal de camp, field marshal, Feldmarschall, field marshal). office, II. During the reign of Philip. The marshal became one of the most powerful lords in the country. The number of French marshals gradually increased: in the 13th century there were only two, in the 16th century there were already four, and in the 18th century there were twenty marshals. During the French Revolution, in 1793, the position was abolished, but in 1804, Napoleon appointed 18 Imperial Marshals. Later, the rank of marshal could only be earned in war. Although the marshal's office also appeared in England in the 12th century, the rank of field marshal was only taken over from the Germans in 1736 and introduced in the British army in II. King George. The rank became the prerogative of only a few military leaders, such as the Imperial Chief of Staff.

In the Soviet Union

In the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of the Soviet Union, the highest command ranks were introduced in 1935, and their highest, sixth level, was named Marshal of the Soviet Union. In 1940, they switched to the ranks of generals usual in other armies, creating four of these ranks, but keeping the marshal as the highest rank. The general ranks of the armed forces (artillery, air force, tank teams, radio teams, technical teams, etc.) and other armed bodies (border guards, etc.) received a special designation in the name, for example, artillery colonel, and distinguishing marks on the uniform and rank insignia, similarly to the officer ranks. they got. At first, the generals of these arms and bodies could only receive the first three ranks (general, lieutenant general, colonel), but at the beginning of 1943, for the five arms listed above, the rank of marshal (artillery marshal, air force marshal, etc.) was created, which is the general general rank he was at the same level as the fourth one, the army general. Even in the autumn of the same year, the higher rank of chief marshal of arms was created. According to the protocol, the latter was not completely equal to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union, but it was essentially on the same level as it was, since chief marshals of arms could not be promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. It was an almost exclusive rule that military generals were promoted one higher from the staff category of colonel-general to the corresponding rank of marshal and then chief marshal, while after the general rank of colonel-general the rank of army general and marshal of the Soviet Union came next in the promotion line. This rule was deviated from only once in the entire history of the Soviet Union, when in 1983 General of the Army Vladimir Fyodorovich Tolubko, commander of the strategic missile forces, was appointed chief marshal of artillery. After the victorious conclusion of the Second World War, it was established in June 1945 for Stalin to become the Generalissimo.