Mexican War of Independence

Article

October 25, 2021

The Mexican War of Independence took place between 1810 and 1821, resulting in the creation of a state of Mexico independent of Spain. In 1808, Napoleon's French armies occupied the Iberian Peninsula, then forced to resign and were captured in IV. Charles King of Spain and his son, VII. Ferdinand. As a result, a number of anti-French juntas were formed in Spain, the fame of which also spread to New Spain in the summer, where several people began similar organizations. Francisco Primo de Verdad and his colleagues suggested that as long as the legitimate ruler could not hold office, a government representing the people should be convened under the leadership of Vice-President José de Iturrigaray. In September, however, a group of militants captured Iturrigaray and his comrades. In the following years, several conspiracies for similar purposes were woven, such as in Valladolid and Querétaro; the idea of ​​independence has already been raised here. The conspiracy in Queretaro, where an armed struggle was also planned, was exposed, so Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was forced to start an uprising on September 16, 1810, ahead of time. As the majority of the rural population lived in poverty and felt oppressed, huge masses joined the struggle for independence in a short time, though they were mostly unskilled militarily and their armaments were incomplete. Over the next five years, the insurgents fought a series of battles against the Spanish army with alternating success. Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811, making José María Morelos the chief leader of the movement, who carried out campaigns mainly in the southern territories. He convened the Anahuac Congress, the government of the independence fighters, where they also issued their first constitution, the Apatzingan constitution. Morelos was captured and executed in 1815. By 1816, the troops fighting for independence had dwindled and were left without a large-format leader, so they began a guerrilla war. In 1817, the Spanish Francisco Xavier Mina came to their aid from Europe with a small army, but he could not give a new impetus to the struggle either. Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca, moreover, offered amnesty to the insurgents if they stopped fighting, which also significantly weakened the independence movement. In 1820, however, a turning point occurred in Spanish politics: the anti-absolutist, liberal Cádiz constitution was restored following the Rafael de Riego movement. As this also harmed the interests of the church and the aristocracy of New Spain, a secret movement was organized in Mexico City to prevent the constitution from coming into force in New Spain, even at the cost of independence from Spain. The participants in the La Profesa conspiracy asked Agustín de Iturbide to start a fight against the remaining insurgents hiding in the southern mountains, who also supported the constitution. Unable to defeat them militarily, he persuaded Vicente Guerrero through negotiations to join forces and gain independence together, albeit not in the form originally planned, but as a constitutional monarchy. Thus was born in early 1821 the Iguala Plan and the Army of the Three Guarantees, and then in the summer the Córdoba Convention. The army ceremoniously marched into the capital, ending the 11-year war and giving Mexico independence. After the formation of the transitional government, Agustín de Iturbide was crowned emperor in 1822, but the following year the system collapsed and the republic was soon proclaimed. Spain did not initially recognize the Córdoba Convention and even launched some attempts at reconquest against Mexico, the most significant of which was the Isidro Barradas campaign of 1829,

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