July 6, 2022

Miskolc (Miškovec in Slovak and Czech, Mischkolz in German, Mishkolc in Gypsy) is a county town in the northeastern part of Hungary, on the eastern slopes of the Bükk region. It is the center and largest settlement of the Northern Hungary region. Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county and seat of the Miskolc district. A quarter of the county's population lives in Miskolc. It is the fourth most populous city in the country after Budapest, Debrecen and Szeged, together with the agglomeration it is the third largest after Budapest and Debrecen, and the second largest city in Hungary with a built-up area after Budapest. The area is one of the oldest inhabited areas in Europe, as evidenced by Paleolithic finds. The settlement, built at the junction of various geographical units, along important trade routes, was already a trading town in the Middle Ages, and in 1365 it received city status from King Louis the Great. After the Turkish subjugation, its industry also began to develop. Miskolc is one of the most important industrial centers in Hungary. In addition to the traditional heavy industry and food industry sectors, modern electronics, vehicle industry and chemical companies also play a significant role in the city's economy. There are also several innovation clusters operating in the city. Miskolc's ambition is to become the research and development center of the region, partly based on the scientific foundations of the local university with a long history and partly based on the technical background of already established large companies. Since the regime change, it has been trying to strengthen its role in culture and tourism; from this point of view, its main attractions include the Miskolctapolca Cave Spa, the Diósgyőr Castle, the Palace Hotel in Lillafüred and the Miskolc National Theater, as well as the Miskolc Zoo and Cultural Park. As the leading city of the region, it fulfills the corresponding functions; university town, the economic, educational and cultural center of the county and its surroundings. City Day of Miskolc: May 11.


The city was built in the eastern part of the Beech region, "embedded" in it, in the valleys of the Szinva, Hejő and Sajó, at the junction of various natural and economic features. The city owes its exceptional beauty to its wonderful location. The valley plain where the Sajó, Bódva and Hernád merge, the Miskolci Gate has been the scene of significant goods and passenger traffic since ancient times. The area of ​​Miskolc is 236.66 km², of which 54.21 km² is the indoor area, 29.34 km² is the closed garden and 153.11 km² is the outdoor area. The width of the inland part is 19 km in the east-west direction, 10 km in the north-south direction. Today's surface - as a result of crustal structure movements - has a stepped structure. It stretches 30 km from east to west, within which four "stairs" can be observed; the height difference reaches 800 meters. Its highest area is the Borovnyák roof (945 m). The lowest area is the side of the Sajó (110–120 m), this part of the lowland landscape. It is built up by young, Pleistocene-Holocene sediments (gravel, sand, clay, silt). The plain landscape from the Avas–Tetemvár line to Diósgyőr is replaced by a 250–300 meter high hilly landscape, the Alacsony Bükk. Its geological structure consists of Tertiary sea sediments - sand, sandstone, marl, clay, intercalated coal layers - and Miocene volcanic materials, mainly tuffs. Its surface is divided by streams and watercourses. From Diósgyőr to approximately Lillafüred, the 400-600 meter long series of boulders of the Közésső Bükk is made up predominantly of Triassic limestone, slate, subordinate dolomite and other rocks. The geographical characteristics of the landscape zone are given by the karst forms of destruction. The highest step in the Miskolc landscape begins at Lillafüred, the Magas Bükk, or Bükk Plateau, rising to 600-900 meters. It is composed of ancient and medieval marine sediments (limestone