German Democratic Republic

Article

November 28, 2021

The German Democratic Republic (GDR for short) was a socialist state that existed between 1949 and 1990 in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany. History of the German Democratic Republic

Establishment of the GDR

In May 1945, the Soviet Union and the Western Allies won a victory over the Third Reich. Germany came under ⅔-western and ⅓-Soviet control, dividing the country into occupation zones by the four allied superpowers. The Soviets handed over control of the Western Allies over the western parts of Berlin, while the American and British troops in Thuringia and Ostphalia were replaced by the Soviets. In 1946, under Soviet pressure in the eastern sector, the German Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the German Communist Party (KPD) declared unification. The German Socialist Unity Party (NSZEP) was formed, from the leadership of which Western-minded leftists were ousted. The party came under the complete influence of the Communists loyal to the Soviets. By 1947, the Western Allies were gradually unifying their own occupied zones. However, the Soviet Union had no interest in the re-emergence in Europe of a unified Germany, now part of the Western federal system, and therefore closed its own zone of occupation to Western-type change. The technical lock, the Iron Curtain, was gradually built on the internal German border. On June 2, 1948, currency reform (German mark; DM) was introduced in their western occupation zones. In response, the Soviets issued their own currency in the East. (oriental brand; OM). The German mark was also introduced in West Berlin on 24 June, in response to which the Soviet authorities blocked the land borders of West Berlin. Their goal was to persuade the Western powers to withdraw from Berlin. The Soviets finally lifted the blockade of West Berlin in May 1949. The 3rd German People's Congress convened in the Eastern Bloc, adopting a “people's democratic” German constitution modeled on the Soviet Union. At the same time, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was formed in West Germany. In East Berlin, on October 7, 1949, the name, constitution, flag, and coat of arms of the new state were presented to the diplomatic corps and journalists of the socialist countries in an extremely restrained ceremony. East Berlin has been designated as the capital of the new state. With this act, Germany, the German Democratic Republic, was officially divided into two separate states.

From the beginning of the Cold War to the wall

In 1950, Walter Ulbricht became the first secretary of the NSZEP. The Ministry of State Security (“Ministerium für Staatssicherheit”, commonly known as “Stasi”) was established, which, in addition to foreign intelligence and espionage, was tasked with fighting the “internal enemy”. Elections were held on 15 October. In the elections, only the so-called It was possible to vote for a “unit list” in which, in addition to the candidates of the NSZEP, the candidates of other parties were also included. (No party other than the Nazi party was banned in the GDR. Right-wing parties were allowed to operate, but were, of course, under strong control.) In the elections, the unit list won 99.3%. The following year, the first five-year plan was launched following the Soviet model. The plan placed great emphasis on restarting and dynamizing heavy industrial production that was destroyed in the war. In 1952, Stalin offered to unite the two Germans, on the condition that the united Germany be independent. But the gift

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