Germany

Article

May 19, 2022

Germany (German: Deutschland), or officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is an independent federal state in Central and Western Europe. It extends from the Alps to the North and Baltic Seas. Its land borders are Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France and the Benelux countries to the west. With an area of ​​357,022 square kilometers, it is the 7th largest country in Europe. In terms of its form of government, it is a federal parliamentary republic governed by the Chancellor of Germany, who is currently Olaf Scholz. With a population of more than 83 million, it is the 2nd most populous state in Europe and the most populous of the European Union. From an administrative point of view, it is organized from 16 federal provinces and a total of 294 districts. Its capital is also the most populous city of Berlin, its financial center is Frankfurt am Main, while its largest contiguous urban region is the Ruhr area. Other major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. The territory of the country has been inhabited by various Germanic tribes since the age of classical antiquity. From the 10th century onwards, German territories formed the central part of the Holy German-Roman Empire. In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation against the Roman Catholic Church began here. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and the Napoleonic Wars, the German Confederation was formed in 1815, which eventually led to the unification of Germany in 1871 and the formation of the German Empire. After the First World War and the German Revolution of 1918-19, the Weimar Republic was formed. After the fall of power by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime in 1933, the Third Reich was formed, which eventually led to the outbreak of World War II and the Holocaust. After World War II came the period of Allied occupation of Germany, which resulted in the birth of two new German nation-states, the Federal Republic of West Germany (FRG) and the East German Democratic Republic (GDR). The former, the FRG, was the founder of the European Economic Community, while the GDR was a state of the Eastern Bloc and the Warsaw Pact. After the fall of communism and the change of regime, the country was finally reunited on October 3, 1990. Today, Germany is a global power and one of the leading states in the European Union. It is part of the Schengen area and the eurozone, as well as a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7 and the OECD. Its economy is the strongest in Europe, the 4th largest in the world in terms of nominal GDP, and the 5th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity. As a global leader in many industrial and technological sectors, it is also the world’s 3rd largest exporter and importer. It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world due to its well-known and popular art and cultural history.

Geography

Terrain

Germany stretches from the Alps mountain range on its southern border (highest point: Zugspitze, 2963 m) to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, which form the northern border. Between these borders are the forested highlands of central Germany and the northern German lowlands (lowest point: Neuendorf / Wilstermarsch, Ø3.54 m). The three major geographical regions of Germany are the North German Plain, the German Midlands and the Alps with the Alps. North German Plain or Germanic Plain: its surface is divided by moraines. It is bordered by the German Midlands. The lakes and moraine hills of the Mecklenburg Lake District have survived the former icing. The area of ​​the primeval valleys is connected to the northern moraine region,