A nuclear weapon

Article

August 14, 2022

A nuclear weapon is a weapon whose energy comes from nuclear transformation. Its two types use two types of self-reformation: in the case of the atomic bomb, nuclear fission, while in the case of the hydrogen bomb, the binding energy of the nucleus is released as a result of nuclear fusion. It has extremely high destructive power: one such weapon can destroy even a large city of several million people. Since the common characteristic of fission and fusion bombs is that they release energy through the transformation of the atomic nucleus (Latin and English nucleus core), the most accurate common name for these forms of explosives is "nuclear weapon". Nuclear weapons have been used twice in the history of mankind: World War II. During World War II, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing hundreds of thousands of people. At least that many suffered from the effects of the attacks in the decades to come. The following states are known to have nuclear bombs: United States of America, Russia, United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan and North Korea. Recently, North Korea carried out an underground nuclear explosion, but the power was much less than expected, presumably because the bomb "choked", but in March 2015 they announced that they had nuclear weapons. On September 9, 2016, North Korea allegedly conducted another nuclear test, timed to coincide with the anniversary of the country's founding. The magnitude of the earthquake caused by the detonation was twice as large as that detected during previous tests, despite this, it is not yet completely certain to the outside world that it was a nuclear explosion. It is certain that Israel also has nuclear weapons, but it refuses to comment on this. Brazil's nuclear program is similar. Iran has put a uranium enrichment plant into operation, which the United States says it wants to use for military purposes. According to the government there, their nuclear program is for peaceful purposes. South Africa secretly developed nuclear weapons in the early 1980s, but dismantled them in 1991. Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan possessed nuclear weapons after the collapse of the Soviet Union, but returned them to Russia.

History

In 1934 and 1936, Leó Szilárd announced two patents to the British Admiralty. A public one, in which he vaguely refers to energy storage, and a secret one, which described the principle of the bomb, but he did not know with which element he could participate in the chain reaction. In the laboratory of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut in Berlin in 1938, Otto Hahn and his assistant Fritz Strassmann succeeded in splitting the uranium atom. During their stay in Sweden in 1939, Lise Meitner (former employee of the Kaiser Wilhelm Insitute) and her nephew, Otto Frisch, theorized the magnitude of the mass defect, and at the same time, based on Niels Bohr's research on surface tension, they found proof as to why uranium splits into two very low atomic number elements. . Danish physicist Niels Bohr, who worked in the fields of atomic structure and quantum mechanics and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922, also succeeded in splitting the uranium atom. Enrico Fermi won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1938, and after receiving it, he emigrated with his family to New York. Teller Ede also emigrated to the United States of America in 1935 at the invitation of George Gamow. Not all of the scientific publications published before the war were classified, so the Germans and the Japanese also dealt with the idea of ​​the atomic bomb. The Americans searched for slow and fast neutron nuclear disintegration with experiments using a graphite moderator (Enrico Fermi) and the Germans with heavy water moderators.