List of Western Emperors

Article

May 19, 2022

Below is a list of the rulers who ruled the Frankish Empire or one of its successor states, the Central Frankish Kingdom, the Western Frankish Kingdom, the Eastern Frankish Kingdom, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy; and the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire who were awarded the title of emperor; they are considered the emperors of the west. These rulers, given the imperial title they held, can also be called the Roman emperors of the Middle Ages and modern times.

Introduction

The last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was resigned in 476 by German general Odoaker, who later called himself king of Italy. The western imperial title was restored during the reign of King Frank I (Great), as III. Pope Leo (St.), in 800, crowned Charles the Great as Roman emperor. Emperor Charles I held the following royal titles: "Karolus serenissimus augustus a Deo coronatus magnus pacificus imperator Romanum imperium gubernans qui et per misericordiam dei rex Francorum atque Langobardorum". Charles the Great, then, was not only the king of the Franks (“rex francorum”) and the king of the Longobards (“rex… atque langobardorum”), but also the Roman emperor (“imperator Romanum”); more precisely, “the Roman emperor who ruled the empire” (“imperator Romanum imperium gubernans”). With this prudent formulation, Charles the Great achieved his imperial title, in 812, by the Byzantine emperor Michael I. His successors, crowned Emperor Charles the Great, are considered Roman emperors (most of whom were also crowned emperors in Rome), despite the fact that his immediate descendants were called "imperator augustus" ("majestic emperor") in order for the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire to to avoid conflict with their rulers. Otto I (the Great), however, after being crowned emperor in 962, already bore the title of “imperator Romanorum et Francorum,” that is, “emperor of the Romans and Franks”. The designation 'Romanorum imperator augustus' ('the majestic emperor of the Romans'), II. It can be read in the 982 documents of Emperor Otto (Red). III. Otto Since his coronation as emperor in 996, the emperors have also been entitled "Romanorum Imperator Augustus". The empire ruled by Emperor Otto I and his successors until 1806 was the Holy Roman Empire. Formation of the name of the empire: "Sacrum Imperium": 1157, "Sacrum Romanum Imperium": 1184, the latter becoming a common name: 1254. 1512: in a document of the imperial assembly - as in an official document, it reads for the first time the "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation." Until the end of the empire, however, its official name was the Holy Roman Empire (German: "Heiliges Römisches Reich" / "HRR" /), referred to as the "German-Roman Empire". The head of the empire was the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (i.e., the Roman emperor). Since the coronation of Otto I as emperor, only German rulers (kings) could bear the imperial title, so the term “German-Roman emperor” was common in both common language and literature (the “Roman-German emperor” would be more accurate); but the official title was the "Roman emperor". Since Charles the Great was already called the “Roman Emperor,” regardless of when the name of the Holy Roman Empire became common, Charles the Great and all his imperial successors can be classified as rulers of the Holy Roman Empire; this is also indicated by the continuous numbering of the emperors. Beginning with the father of Emperor Otto I, King Henry I (Madarász), the empire