Russian Empire

Article

July 5, 2022

Russian Empire (Russian: Российская империя, in Hungarian transliteration: Российская империя) was the official name of Russia between 1721 and 1917. Its capital was Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербург, in Hungarian transliteration: Szankt-Petyerburg). The head of the state was the current Russian emperor, who in everyday life is often incorrectly called the tsar.

Russian Empire

The name Russian Empire originates from Péter the Great, who in 1721, a few months after concluding the peace of Nystad, appointed himself emperor (emperor) and at the same time renamed Russia. From then on, the official title of the Russian rulers became the Emperor of All Russia (Императоръ Всероссийский - Imperator Vserossiyskyi) and the Empress of All Russia (Императрица Всероссийская - Imperatrica Vserossiyskaya). The territory of the Empire at the end of the 19th century was 22.8 million km², the population was 128, There were 2 million people (according to the 1897 census). More than 100 nationalities lived in the Russian Empire, and 43% of the population were native Russian speakers. In the heyday of the Russian Empire, it was administratively divided into 81 governorates and 20 independent territories. There were 931 cities in the empire. The Russian Empire included the Baltic States, Ukraine, Belarus, most of Poland (Kingdom of Poland), Bessarabia, the Caucasus states, Finland, the territories beyond the Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Siberia, Alaska. The Russian Empire was a hereditary monarchy headed by an all-powerful ruler, the Emperor (Romanov House). The state church was the Russian Orthodox Church, headed by the emperor through the mediation of the Holy Synod.

Peter I (the Great)

On February 8, 1725, Russian Tsar Peter I (the Great), one of the most prominent and controversial figures in Russian history, died in St. Petersburg. He was born in Moscow on June 9, 1672, from Tsar Alexei's second marriage to Natalya Naryskina. He was four years old at the time of his father's death, and unlike his half-siblings, he was healthy and intelligent. The tsarist throne was occupied by his half-brother, the ailing Fyodor. After his death in 1682, Péter and Fyodor's brother, the weak-minded Iván, became co-ruler, and Iván's 25-year-old sister, the smart and influential Sófja, was appointed regent. Péter grew up in the village of Preobrazhenskoye near Moscow, his upbringing was neglected. At the age of 17, Péter married Yevdokija Lopuhina, whom he soon got bored of and sent to a monastery. During the 1689 Strele Rebellion, he managed to remove Sofja and then lock her up in a monastery. The co-ruler Iván died in 1696, and a year later Péter left for the West with a delegation of 250 people to study the economy and culture of European countries. He worked as a ship carpenter in the Netherlands and England under the pseudonym Pyotr Mihajlov. He returned to his homeland on the news of another rebellion by the tsar's bodyguards, the strelets, and dealt with the strelek regiments with extreme cruelty. At the beginning of Peter's reign, Russia was considered backward, so the tsar's goal was to bring the empire to a level of development similar to that of Western European countries. He introduced a whole series of reforms covering all areas of life, breaking the resistance of the boyars and the Orthodox Church, mercilessly punishing those who disagreed with his ideas. His calendar reform is of symbolic importance: from 1700, in Russia, the birth of Christ was no longer considered the beginning of the world, and the new year began on January 1, instead of September 1. However, Péter introduced the Julian calendar instead of the Gregorian calendar common in Europe. He reorganized it to the middle