Gyula Petrányi

Article

July 5, 2022

Gyula Petrányi (Budapest, June 24, 1912 – Budapest, March 5, 2000) Széchenyi Prize-winning physician, internist, immunologist, doctor of medicine, full member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He is the founder of the school of clinical immunology, the pathophysiological research of autoimmune diseases, and the introduction of several modern immunological diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in Hungary (e.g. biopsy, nuclear medicine). From 1950 to 1974, he was the director and head of department of the internal medicine clinics of the Medical University of Debrecen, and from 1974 to 1983, the University of Budapest.

His Life

He completed his secondary school studies in Budapest, and obtained his medical degree at the Faculty of Medicine of Pázmány Péter University in the capital in 1936. Before that, in 1932-1933, he was a demonstrator at the university's physiology institute, and from 1934 he was an intern. After obtaining his diploma, in 1936, he joined the Internal Medicine Clinic No. 1 led by Ferenc Herzog as an unpaid intern, and worked there until 1950. In 1940, he took a specialist exam in internal medicine and continued working as an unpaid teaching assistant at the internal medicine clinic. In the final hours of the Second World War, in 1944, he enlisted as a military doctor at the garrison hospital in Kasa, then returned home in 1945 after a short period as a prisoner of war. From 1945, he continued to work as a paid teacher's assistant at the internal medicine clinic, in the meantime, in 1946, he passed the rheumatologist's and physical therapist's professional exams. In 1948, he obtained a private teaching qualification from the functional pathology and clinic of blood circulation, and in this capacity he taught at the medical faculty in Budapest until 1951. During 1948-1949, as a state scholarship holder, he went on an eight-month study tour in Great Britain connected with continuing education in rheumatology and internal medicine. His application was accepted and in 1950 he was appointed to the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Debrecen as the head professor of internal medicine. In 1951, he organized the II. became the director of internal medicine clinic no. In 1952, he obtained the degree of Candidate of Medicine, and in 1965 he also defended his doctoral dissertation. In 1966, he was appointed head of internal medicine clinic No. I, but at the same time, for another academic year, until 1967, he managed clinic II. healing and professional activities at clinic no. He performed his duties as head of department and clinic director until 1974, in the meantime he was the dean of the medical faculty in 1953-1954, and the clinical deputy rector of the university in 1971-1974. In 1974, he returned to Budapest, and until 1983, Semmelweis University of Medicine II. He was the director of internal medicine clinic no. After his retirement in 1983, he continued to support the clinical work as a scientific consultant, and in 1997 he became a professor emeritus of the medical university.

His work

In the first phase of his career, his main research area was internal medicine cardiology, diagnostics and clinical therapy of disorders of the circulatory system. Later, his scientific interest turned to immunology, including the pathology, diagnostics, clinic and related pharmacological research of autoimmune diseases - connective tissue lupus erythematosus, hemoblastosis and collagenosis, arthritis, nephritis, rheumatic fever. He dealt extensively with the immunity of bone marrow and other organ transplants, as well as its theoretical and practical issues. He is credited with the introduction of several cell-level laboratory diagnostic immunological methods in Hungary (e.g. chromosome analysis, kidney biopsy, nuclear medicine), the immunoendocrinological approach