August 14, 2022
Puglia, anciently Apulia (Greek Ἀπουλία) is a region of Italy with its seat in Bari. It occupies the southeastern part of the Apennine Peninsula, the "heel of the Italian boot". It is bordered by Molise to the north, the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the south, and Basilicata and Campania to the west. It also includes the Gargano Peninsula, the "spur of the Italian boot". Its southern extension is the Salento peninsula. Its area is mainly dominated by low, flat landforms: the northern part of the region is a flat area that is excellent for agriculture, while the central and southern parts are low limestone plateaus rich in karst formations. According to archaeological findings, the region has been inhabited since the Upper Pleistocene (Altamura man). Menhirs and dolmens in Salento are relics of prehistoric civilizations. The eponymous Japigs are of Illyrian origin in i. e. They came to this region from the Dalmatian coast in the 2nd millennium. I. e. Between 800 and 700, the Meszaps settled in the Salento area. To the north of them, along the Adriatic coast, lived the Peucetians, and in the northern part of the region, the Daunians. Taranto is also considered one of the first Greek-founded cities in Italy. After the Greeks succeeded in defeating the local peoples, Taranto became the leading and richest city of Magna Graecia. The i. e. In the 4th century, the political situation changed again as the tribes of southern Italy found a strong ally, the aggressively expanding Rome. Although the Greeks achieved considerable success against Rome during the Pyrrhic Wars, i. e. In 272, Taranto fell, and after that the Roman Empire gradually extended its power over the entire region. During the Punic Wars, the Carthaginian armies led by Hannibal ravaged the region, and then i. e. In 216, the Roman army was destroyed near Cannae. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Goths, Byzantines, Longobards, and Saracens competed for control over the region. The political situation settled down during the Norman conquests, with the establishment of the Duchy of Apulia and its subsequent merger into the Kingdom of Sicily. The Norman conquests of southern Italy also brought significant changes in local architecture. Since they were committed supporters of Rome, they began to vigorously Latinize the occupied Greek-Byzantine territories, and therefore supported large-scale church constructions. The outstanding work of Apulian Romanesque is the Basilica of San Nicola, built in the 11th century, which served as a model building for the large churches of the region. After the Normans II. During the reign of Frederick, Castel del Monte was built, which is one of the symbols of the region, the "Stone Crown of Apulia". In the following centuries, Puglia became the periphery of the kingdom. The Turkish threat from the sea became permanent. According to the traditions of feudalism, the countryside was divided into smaller counties and duchies. After the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the constant threat to the coasts of Salento ended, and sea trade could start without hindrance. This favored the start of new large-scale constructions and the development of the Baroque in Lecce. In 1860 it became part of the united Kingdom of Italy. Despite the general national development, Puglia remained in its backward state, which has been in the public consciousness as one side of the "southern question" since the establishment of national unity, and remains unsolved. Thanks to catch-up programs aimed at solving this, the Bari-Brindisi-Taranto triangle was born, within which industrial development proceeds parallel to the construction of services and infrastructure.