January 27, 2022

A gearbox or torque converter is a gear unit that can change the torque and speed measured on the drive shaft stepwise or steplessly according to the capabilities and needs of the resource and the driven machine. Transmissions are used for various purposes. Internal combustion engines are only able to provide economical performance over a relatively low speed range. However, the speed and torque requirements of driven machines (in most cases a car, motorcycle, diesel locomotive or motor train) vary widely. On the other hand, machine tools often need to maintain a certain gear ratio between the main movement and the secondary movements (feed) (for example, when the lathe is cutting a thread), in which case it is important to keep the kinematic relationship accurately, and torque adjustment is secondary. The transmission can be gear (spur or planetary), hydrodynamic or hydrostatic. Belt-driven or chain-driven or friction-driven transmissions are used less frequently. The task can be accomplished with multiple electric drives, but these solutions are not commonly referred to as torque converters.

Internal combustion engines

One of the advantages of reciprocating steam engines was their ease of handling. The steam engine was able to start the steam locomotive from a full load position with the possibly several tens of trains connected to it. Internal combustion engines (Otto and diesel engines), on the other hand, can only be started without load, cannot be operated when stationary, and must run at minimum speed (idle) in order to be loaded. The power delivered by the engine is highly dependent on their speed. Engine power, shaft torque and specific consumption are highly dependent on speed. It would be beneficial for the propulsion of land wheeled vehicles if the engine power could be maximized at all speeds. Because performance can be described as: P M ω {\ displaystyle P M \ omega \,} ,where M {\ displaystyle M \,} the torque, ω {\ displaystyle \ omega \,} Angular velocity proportional to rpm, of which: M P ω {\ displaystyle M {\ frac {P} {\ omega}}} .The ideal drive would realize this connection. In this case, if high torque were required (e.g., to drive a vehicle up a steep slope or when accelerating the vehicle), it would be available at the expense of speed. However, the torque applied to the shaft of internal combustion engines is shown in the figure. The torque required for the driven vehicle could thus only be achieved with the transmission in place. This would allow the torque on the wheels to be available at the required value at a nearly constant engine speed. Strictly speaking, this task can only be solved by using continuously variable transmissions. In practice, however, it is usually sufficient to use a multi-speed transmission, which is simpler in structure and therefore cheaper. Transmissions have 4 to 7 gears and usually a reverse gear.

Spur gearboxes


The simplest is the construction of gearboxes. Goods and their maintenance are also the cheapest and most reliable. They work as follows: The motor is connected to the speed by a releasable clutch ("clutch")

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